The above poster art depicting a likeness of Maurice Bishop and Bob Marley was a salient reality in Grenada. Rastafari in Grenada were active participants in the revolution on Grenada.
. The following is from the paper Rastafari in the Grenada Revolution by Arthur Newland: “One aspect of the revolution that few scholars have focused on is the pivotalrole played by the Rastafari brethren of Grenada in the early days of the‘Revo’—and their subsequent suffering under the People’s Revolutionary Government. The Rastafari were the first group to throw in their lot with the revolution, and without their grassroots support, it would have been difficult for the NJM to achieve success. The first images that the outside world saw of Grenada after the 1979 coup were of dreadlocked soldiers, reflecting the fact that two-thirds of the original People’s Liberation Army was Rastafari (more than a thousand brethren representing Rastas from all regions of the island). Within months, these frontline supporters fell out of favour with the PRG’s leaders and their ideology. This paper draws on the testimony of Prince Nna Nna or Ras Nang, the island’s first black belt martial artist, who trained the troops of the People’s Revolutionary Army, and at one time was Maurice Bishop’s bodyguard. His account, in an interview with Dr Ikael Tafari, of the brutal oppression of the Rastafari during the “Revo” includes allegations of beatings, imprisonment, torture and executions by the PRG. My own meeting withRas Nang gives ethnographic insights into how Rastafari influenced the Caribbean’s political and social evolution”. (From the microfiche records of seized Grenadian Revolution records, held at Maryland Record Office, USA, available to the public.) Crowe/Crow/Crichlow, Winston/Dennis ‘Ras/Rasta Nang Nang/Prince Nna Nna’, former member of Peoples Revolutionary Army, martial arts instructor for Peoples Revolutionary Army, jeweller, shot during an escape attempt; River Road, St. George’s; re: held in the interest of national security, public safety and public order; charged before the Courts with attempting to escape lawful custody (S.3 Preventive Detention Regulations, detained 14 OCT 1979 to 22 APR 1981 (7 months); detained again 11 JUL 1981 and released 25 OCT 1983, at Fort Rupert Prison 22 JUL 1981, also Richmond Hill Prison and Hope Vale. Shot multiple times during arrest and escape attempt from ‘Babylon’s dungeon’. The preceding is an official microfiche document establishing the identity and standing in the PRA of the man, being interviewed.
Ikael Tafari the late Rastafari ideologue wrote in his work Rastafari in transition, in an interview with Rastafari Grenadian elder, Prince Nna Nna, a black belt expert and the man who personally trained Maurice Bishop’s soldiers in self-defense techniques. What follows are transcript’s from that taped interviewin colloquial Grenadian “English” (authors note the pronounciation in the transcript are in Grenadian colloquial “English”, peppered with much Rasta speak i.e. Iyaric): “Q: Prince Nna, the crucial question is: why did the PRG look on the Rastafari as a threat during the course of the Grenada Revolution?
A: Because the Rastafari were more popular, more grassroot and more genuinely revolutionary than the Maurice Bishop administration at that time.
Q: What kind of following did the Rastaman have during that period?
A: Rasta had a bigger following then than Bishop and his people.
Q: What kind of number among the Rases themselves are we talking about here?
A: At that stage, remember, it wasn’t Rasta alone. It was Rasta and the general public which fully supported the Rastafari cause. You could even see this at our weekly Nyahbingi meetings. Plenty more people were coming to our Nyahbingi celebrations than those going to Maurice Bishop and dem political meetings. And that caused jealousy.
Q: What number of Rases in the town area would be gathering at these Nyahbingis?
A: At that time, approximately a thousand to twelve hundred Rastas—I not speaking yet of sympathizers and people coming to hear what the Rastaman had to say.
Q: You mean three or four hundred people from the general public?
A: Plenty more than that. Whole villages of people. Especially in places like Victoria, Gouyave and Sauteurs and right in St. George’s.
Q: There were more Binghiman in the country than in the town at that time?
A: The Rasta people in Grenada in that period lived more in the mountain, in the interior. A good portion of brethren also lived in the town, but the biggest concentration was in the hills. Rasta in Grenada was more originally a hills vibration like in most of the other Caribbean islands. It was the Maurice Bishop administration that ran the Rasta out of the hills.
Q: At what stage?
A: That was just at the time the Cubans started to come into Grenada, say around the first three months of the Revolution.
Q: That early?
A: Yes. Very early in the Revolution, Maurice Bishop started fighting against the Rastafari. Technically, psychologically and then openly. There are many ways, you know. You have to be very sharp to observe these intellects and lawyers like Maurice and Radix and all the other political gangsters.
Q: How many Rastas were in the original People’s Liberation Army?
A: The Liberation Army was predominantly Rasta. Let’s say two–thirds at least.
Q: You mean a thousand or more?
A: More than a thousand. There were Rastas in it from all different regions of the island.
Q: Did any of these Rases sit on any of the popular representative bodies of the Revo-like zonal councils or committees for example?
A: Well, the Rasta people were on the frontline, looking to preserve the peace and security of the country and to quell any violent opposition, like. Rasta at that time was a middle man and a liberator. His part in the Revolution was keeping the peace while Maurice and dem part was organizing political power. So while the Rastas were on the battlefield looking to secure the Revolution, Maurice and his little clique were preparing to set up the government.
Q: And getting together a whole new army of his own from his hometown, St. Paul’s, too?
A: Yes, and recruiting foreigners in important position, too. And giving them ranks even higher than those of the genuine revolutionaries who had fought to win freedom for the people. Most of the people who fought the battle in Grenada against Gairy and afterwards, too, never really got their due honour or respect or authority. But, seeing that the Rasta people were ever willing to sacrifice their life for the Revo, it was strange that Maurice and dem ended up putting the Rastas as their enemy, just because Rasta was the first to tell these political leaders, look, what all-yuh doing is wrong. All-yuh done make a covenant with the people and you must fulfill it. Because Rasta was tracking all of their statements on the radio, the different promises Maurice Bishop made to the nation.
Q: To what effect? You mean about marijuana?
A: Well, on the air, he never made any declaration about marijuana to my knowledge, but before March 13th, the struggle had been based on a broad vision of liberating the grassroots man—spiritually, intellectually, economically and even in terms of freeing up the proper cultural use of the herb.
And Maurice was the main man behind the scenes identifying with the Rastaman. I say this because I personally was a very close associate of Maurice from the first days of the Revolution when Grenada was just militarizing. I was the Physical Training (P.T.) instructor for the whole army. So I was lobbying for the Rasta people, and had the opportunity to speak closely with the revolutionary leader at that time and discuss Rasta problems with him.
And when Maurice formed the new government and left out Rasta completely, I told him, the first time we met after the government had been formed, that he should never do what he did behind the Rasta people’s back, and furthermore, the Rastafari should have their representative in the government to secure the Rastaman’s interests, and to make sure that the people of Grenada get justice—all the different cultures and religions—because I could see where the leadership was heading from the time that they could set up a government without including the Rastafari who were the main spearhead of the people’s struggle at that time.
Q: Did the Muslims sympathize with these views held by the Rastas?
A: At first, some of the Muslims were vexed with the Rastas for taking up arms to support the Revo, especially since the Muslims were more advanced in revolutionary strategy. They were more aware when it came to politics than the Rastas, and in their military training, too. At that stage Rasta’s concern was less with politics and more with basic survival. But when the Revolution began to get into full swing and Maurice cry out for help and made his covenant with the nation, the Rastaman began to gear up himself militarily. He was always in the Revolution as the vanguard of the people’s consciousness, you see, but now he began to get himself more politically organized.
Q: Were the Muslims in close co-ordination then with the Rases?
A: True. Both were prepared to struggle alongside one another in the Revo, because at one stage, all the people who believe in the Supreme Architect, the mighty I AM—the Rases call him Rastafari, the Muslims call him Allah and the Christians call him Jesus Christ—at that stage there was a real spiritual unity among all these different religions in Grenada in the face of a common persecution.
Some of the Muslims were I and I true brethrens and when we get the opportunity we pray together, too. I pray in my own Rastafari tradition and they pray in their Muslim tradition and we respect each other—especially brethren such as Bilal, Yusuf and Habib. Certain days we come together and I explain my spiritual tradition and they explain theirs and we reason together about our beliefs. There was never any conflict among I and the Muslims because I read the Koran and I even come to the understanding that certain things in there pertain to Haile Sellassie I. Also, I taught all of the Muslims Martial Arts in prison.
Q: You are speaking of your shared time in detention, but before that was there that much overlap between the two groups?
A: Yes, even before the Revolution there was solidarity between us. The two religions actually sprang up in Grenada at around the same time. The Rastafarian religion was earlier and more predominant, had more followers, you know, because most of the Muslims was brethren that was coming out from long established Trinidad and Guyana Muslim communities, and some from the Far East, too. The Rasta movement was more, you know, a local thing, but the Muslim and the Rasta had a very firm alliance. At one time I discover that the unity was so strong that we together could have ruled Grenada.
Q: Was Bishop closer to the Rases or the Muslims?
A: Well, Maurice was close to everybody. But at one point when I made the statement to the Torchlight reminding him concerning his promise to the nation about elections after six months, and the end to discrimination in the schools against I and I, and the fact that the Rasta was pushing for representation in Government—not only what he had promised but Rasta rights, in terms of participation in the consolidation of the Revo—
Q: Some people argue that by bringing those charges against the PRG, the Rases were playing into the hands of the same rich people, and that the bourgeoisie, whose interests were traditionally represented by Torchlight, were taking the opportunity to manipulate the Rases’ resistance so as to further certain ultimately CIA-type interests in actively fighting against the Revo.
A: The Rastafari take a different view. You see, Rasta in Grenada was all class of people, even the children of the rich.
Q: But again some have argued that the grassroots Rastaman rejected those from the ranks of the petty bourgeois who sought to join the movement. Was this so?
A: I wouldn’t accept that argument as such. I would have to balance it. You see, after Maurice set up the government, the Rasta people came to the full realization that this was not a genuine people’s government, as we could see it was class-biased in favour of the petty bourgeoisie—
Q: It was not a genuinely revolutionary government, in other words?
A: Seen. At that stage, the Rastafari did not give them the recognition of being a revolutionary government. A genuine revolutionary government would have to respect the rights of the various people of different classes and religions to be all represented at the national level. But instead Bishop took his chosen few and set up an elite with mainly foreigners to control the country.
Q: Did Rastaman play a part in some of the national organizations, like the National Youth Organization, and the co-operatives for instance?
A: The Rasta people took part in all the different arms of the Revolution, even the political arm. There were brethren such as Pyta from Gouyave who was an instructor in Marxism/Leninism. He was a member of the Party also.
Q: So there were Rasta in the actual NJM Party structure?
Q: From before the Revolution?
A: Before and after. Plenty Rastas were members of the NJM. A good portion had also joined the Party before they came to a consciousness of the Rastafari faith. Many in the NJM carried dreadlocks, while they were at the same time studying Marxism and prepared to administrate it, too, as it was later practised full brutality—at Hope Vale, for example.
Q: But surely no genuine Rastaman would have supported these policies of the PRG, carried out in many cases against other brethren.
A: Many man supported them to the very end. Many dreadman were in the Army up to the end of the war. But the majority of these ended up trimming their locks, you see. To be frank, the Revolution really started with dread and ended up with bald head. Eventually all sections of the population became involved, you know, because it was a genuine people’s revolution. But the politicians destroyed this genuine revolutionary spirit of mass unity. You see, they felt themselves so wise that they thought they could set up a little government on their own, and then dash the Rasta people one side.
Q: What about the role played by Ras Kabinda (Desmond Trotter) from Dominica in all this?
A: Well, Kabinda is a beloved Rasta brethren I know very well. He came to Grenada when Bishop had I in prison. He went to Maurice and beg for my release from detention and Maurice agree to let me go on humanitarian grounds. But at the same time he was pressuring I to sign documents stating that I would never practise my spiritual concept against the PRG, and that if I ever engaged in such activity I would have to go into prison or exile. In this way, my faith—the Nyahbingi tradition—was technically outlawed under Maurice and dem administration.
Q: At what point? Before the Torchlight issue?
A: No, after the Torchlight issue.
Q: So that is what really brought the confrontation between the Rastafari and the PRG to a head then: the Torchlight affair.
A: No, the Rasta and the PRG was already at war over Bishop’s broken promises, both concerning elections and the end to victimization of Rasta children in the schools.
Q: How soon had he promised to keep elections?
A: Within six months. Arid the Rases were the first to approach Maurice about this breach of political faith.
Q: So their protest took place before that of the other dissenters like Winston Whyte and Stanley Cyrus?
Q: And yet many of the official accounts claim that the Rastas were being used by men like Cyrus Henry and Teddy Victor.
A: Rasta was not used. Rasta went independently before Maurice in late September of `79—I was the elder brethren and main spokesman—I an’ I congregation of brethren, daughters and children all went up to Maurice’s home and asked him why he was refusing to call the election within 6 months of March 13 as agreed. I was detained two days after the Torchlight publication.
I an’ I had a gigantic Binghi on the Saturday at which the PRG was again declared to be anti-Rasta. And I was picked up on the next day—Sunday. That Binghi was held at Victoria and it shake Maurice’s whole regime, because people came out in their thousands from every corner of Grenada in solidarity. Some even had to walk to reach the spot. At that time, I was a commander in the army. We were taking some military training at that stage from the Guyanese.
At the meeting with Maurice, one of the points I raised was concerning the scholarships that were being given to officers in the army to go to certain countries like Cuba, Libya and Russia so as to further their studies. I told him Rasta was seeking to go to Africa to pursue career training in medicine, law and so on.
As Sellassie I live, Maurice turned and told I he had always thought that Rasta was only a matter of painting and carving. So then I replied to him, if Rasta was only concerned with painting and carving, how come Rastaman was the first to come out bearing arms on March l3th.
That was the turning point in the relationship between Maurice and the Rasta community. You see when Maurice made that statement, I an’ I could see clearly how Maurice was looking on the grassroots people. It was clear that he never intended to provide the Rastafari with the opportunity to educate and develop themselves so as to give greater service to their country.
I even raised the question once again, more directly, with Maurice: Why Russia and not Africa? I had the privilege of questioning him because I and Maurice were still very close at that stage. So I just call my Rasta brethren and sistren together afterwards in my yard, because that was the main place in the town where Rasta used to assemble in those days. Rasta from all over the island used to meet there in I yard and discuss Rasta problems.
So I say to my idren, “Beloved, I an’ I can see that Bishop doesn’t recognize I an’ I. So I-man not going to tarry among dem men.” And I just depart from the Army same time. A while afterwards, they come to me one day and suggest they would like I to set up a programme for a military parade they keeping. So I went back. And I put on one of the sharpest parade dem ever see in Grenada specially for them, and then I left and never look back.
So the revolutionary army eventually died. Or, I should say, the political leadership destroyed it very early in the Revolution. There was a power struggle and the revolutionaries were overthrown actually within the first two months of the Revolution. When I say the revolutionaries, I mean the brethren who first stepped out on the battlefield and made the revolution—not Bishop and dem who was all waiting on board a yacht just off the coast to escape if the attack that morning on Gairy’s army barracks failed.
Q: But let’s get back to Kabinda. As I understand it, he was a key player in the whole drama between Rasta and Maurice Bishop. Bishop had become close to Kabinda originally while defending him in the celebrated case trumped up against him for murder in Dominica.
A: Truly. At first Kabinda was strongly supporting Maurice. I tried to show him the kind of man Maurice was, when I was in prison. Kabinda came to the prison to visit I, and I tell him plainly in the presence of everybody how I see Maurice and his clique. I tell him I see them as wicked men who pretending to be something that they are not. Not only Maurice but all of them, because I had close reasonings with the entire core of the PRG leadership. Including, to a lesser extent, Bernard Coard. From the first time I met him I could see that he loved to dominate. Because he came into the room with a martial arts class in full progress. And he had to interrupt it, you know. He never show no respect. But when he realize he meet up on a little Rastaman who could defend himself with words as well as with blows, then he shake my hand and say he would like to meet me again to reason further and so on. He even set up a meeting between himself and I at one stage when Rasta and Maurice was going through some conflict, but it never came to pass because they came and lock I up before the time appointed.
Q: Some people believe that while Bishop was negotiating with the Rases, Coard and his OREL group, who were definitely not in favour of legalization of marijuana or Rasta representation in government, were undermining his position of leadership in the Party. So that, in effect, Bishop’s hands were tied from the start, even if he himself had wanted to grant concessions to Rasta.
A: That might have been so but what I have to say is that Maurice didn’t really want these things personally, according to my knowledge of the man. After March 13, after they got into power and they started getting international recognition, I said to Maurice, “Forget about taking on America, it doesn’t make sense. Try to be non-aligned.” That is when Rasta had come out and publicly pledged allegiance to the new government. Rastaman had actually offered his services to Bishop to build the country. Rasta with all kinds of intellectual training were willing to give him their counsel. But he prefer to take Cubans as his advisers. And I realize that a lot of these outside people who had only just come to Grenada try to belittle I an’ I in the presence of Maurice, when Rasta was the real Field-Marshal General of the Revolution. Rasta entered the Revolution at the top. We didn’t go into the Revolution as a divided house.
We had we own organization, we unity and we own military weapons. And the people’s support as well. So we had the right to know anything going on that could affect the fate of the revolution. Rasta stepped onto the battlefield in Grenada because we hear the people cry out for help and we see that blood was going to run red. But Rasta didn’t enter the Revolution as a people that come to dominate, but as a liberator. We discuss the whole question about Rasta involvement among weself on the eve of the overthrow, and we come to one mind to step forward in the service of the black people. But since Maurice and dem never ground with the people, they cause whole heap of problems. On the morning of the coup, only one person was killed. But afterwards Maurice regime kill many people, so many innocent people.
Q: I notice you said that the Revolution should have pursued a policy of non-alignment, but could Grenada realistically afford to be scrupulously non-aligned? Wasn’t it a matter of survival why the PRG lined up with Russia and Cuba, I mean as a matter of self-defence?
A: What a lot of people do not know is that it was not Cuba that first stretched out the hand of substantial military assistance to the Revolution. It was Guyana. Guyana sent military advisers and men expert in combat techniques and from the start gave the Revolution military weapons, but Maurice had other ideas. He wanted to shift to Cuban support because of reasons of ideology and culture. You see, the Guyanese military was mostly black man, and they were very sympathetic to the Grenadian popular culture and the Rastafari. But Maurice wanted to play down these genuine revolutionary aspirations and independent cultural feelings among the Grenadian people and pretend that the Revolution was Cuban or Marxist-inspired, to suit his own purpose. Bishop aligned himself with an outside force—Cuba—which tried over and over to dominate events in Grenada and impose their ideas born out of a different cultural situation, you know.
And yet the PRG could have drawn strength from better sources of ideas in their own country. But Maurice and dem chose instead to get together two or three college boys who were mostly afraid to come out and face the Green Beasts on March 13, and give them big ranks over men who were vigilant on the battlefield in dem early days of the Revo. So that was the first overthrow, when the PRG side-stepped the genuine revolutionary freedom-fighters and set up a petty bourgeois friendship clique to control the military in the name of revolution. But the main force that really overthrew the Gairy government in Grenada on March 13 was the Rastafari.
Q: The Muslims did not play any significant role?
A: Well, maybe individual Muslim, but not Muslims as an organized group.
Q: But Habib and Yusuf were in that episode.
A: Yeah, I won’t doubt.
Q: And James Herry and the Budhlall brothers and other Black Power people, right?
A: True. But although the NJM and their allies had military strength, they still did not have the power to capture the country. The NJM was pure paper cells. There were other forces in Grenada that created the Revolution beyond Maurice and dem. It was the grassroot village organizations across the countryside, especially St. Patrick’s, who had the people with them all the way. Maurice had he support too, but they were mostly cowards. They couldn’t face the battlefield. Some of dem were willing and prepared—Layne and Selwyn Strachan and such like—I don’t say no. Dem was there on the morning of the overthrow, too.
Q: And those men were quickly given rank?
A: That’s right. They had very little military training technically. Only Strachan Phillip was a full military soldier. Bishop and dem was so dogmatic that they never took the trouble to educate their party supporters much, military-wise. Only a few of them. Instead, these men were allowed to run around flashing rank. While the main revolutionaries who put their lives on the line never reaped anything from the revolution besides execution, exile and imprisonment. Maurice Bishop’s real aim was not to uphold any genuine revolutionary administration, you know. His main aim was to uphold a petty bourgeois dictatorship, you see, so with regard to the grassroot people, like Yusuf and Strachan Phillip, who were serious about revolutionary change in Grenadian society—Maurice had to destroy them, that was the only way he could get to perpetuate he little stupidness.
Q: Did you know the two Rastaman from Tivoli, Gravel and Skull?
A: I knew all the man dem. Skull was a very religious brethren. Gravel was a big strong Rastaman.
Q: They were close to Buck and KB (Budhlall)?
A: Yeah. Well, they were all from the same region and belonged to the same organization. They entered the Revolution together. These men were highly educated, too. I had many discussions with them in detention and they proved to be remarkable scholars in their own right… Going back to the case of Kabinda. Maurice and dem deport Kabinda from Grenada when the reality start to come out in the open that the PRG was oppressing Rasta. Kabinda began to see for himself the kind of man Maurice really was.
Q: But originally he was in favour of Maurice?
A: He loved Maurice, I can tell you that personally. But he had to draw the sword on Maurice wordically and show him he was being unjust. From the time Kabinda spoke out at the Binghi in September `79 in Gouyave where the Rasta house for the first time brought up official charges against the PRG—from that time Kabinda’s days were numbered. From the first week of the Revo, the PRG was encouraging Rastas to trim their locks. And when they did trim, they were given rank.
But it all came to a confrontation at the Binghi in Gouyave where I an’ I denounce Bishop and dem as traitor to the Revolution, because Revolution stands for rights and justice and respect for your brother and he that labour must hold the reins. But they never want to give I an’ I equal rights at all. And from that day—the first seven days of the Revolution—there was tension between the PRG and I an’ I. And a next thing that make it worse was the fact that I and another brethren Bronson was in command of the whole of St. George’s, the capital. We had we own transport and we own soldiers to patrol the whole region, right. We had authority to search who we want to search, destroy what we want to destroy and take what we want to take. But the Revolution never really loot or burn, because I and my Rasta brethren hold the roots people steady. We used to print pamphlets and other literature, too, and educate the people.
Q: Ras Nang, was any Rastawoman featured in these activities?
A: Plenty Rastawoman was on the battlefield; at that time it was more balanced in that respect, although, as you know within I an’ I faith the man always be predominant numbers-wise. Not only the knotty-dread man but the people in the villages in general used to move close with I an’ I and support the Rasta cause. It was a really joyous time. The people and Rasta came closer together in the time of Maurice, you know, because when the grassroots people saw what Maurice was doing, the only voice that would speak out against the injustice of the PRG was Rasta voice. The Grenadian people herald the Rastas as the champion of the masses.
I an’ I tell Maurice face to face, give the people what you promise them, otherwise I an’ I going to demonstrate against you, see. Plus they were trimming Rasta children to go to school and forcing them to trim if they want to go away on scholarship and all dem kind of things. I know a Rastaman called Medic, they forced him to trim to go away to Cuba for further training. At least, he is a police now, but I still consider him a Rastafari today. He trim but he never forget his Rastafarian principle of brotherhood. Up to now he have excellent relations with I an’ I and the public.
Bishop did not want we children to go to school with dread on their heads. He force one Rastaman (Ras Coach) to trim he children, and is from there that we decided to visit Bishop and confront him about these matters. All this was in the first month of the Revolution. When Maurice started to pick up de Rastas and lock dem up, many of the petty bourgeois people and the masses draw in close in solidarity. So he had the fight from all angle. When I say ‘petty bourgeois,’ I mean just a small percentage—his own political enemies. Maurice was working on them too. He fire nuff of dem from their jobs. In those times to get a work you had to be on the NJM’s political side. Rasta didn’t like that kind of political victimization. He went in the Revolution to get rid of downpression and when he see a new form of downpression infiltrating the Revolution, Rasta start to fight against it same way.
Maurice thought the Rases were he personal friends—give we a little drink and laugh and share out a little money like how he was accustomed to doing with his political patronage, and everything would be fine. He never realize that Rastaman is an independent spirit. You can’t really buy him. Because Bishop offer me nuff things. Today I read many of the books on the Grenadian Revolution, and I laugh at some of these authors. Probably if I had the money, I would sue a lot of them and get back some of the money that they made from spoiling I and my brethren’s name internationally with a heap of false allegations and reckless statements. Some of them never even visit Grenada much less to know what really took place.
This whole thing about the Torchlight incident and the idea that Rasta was supporting CIA: Rasta was never guilty of these charges. I and another brethren, Erasto Jo-Jo, came together in October and decided to fling in some arrows, because from March 13 things was boiling and boiling, and we had many audience with Maurice without getting any justice. We decided that since we were bearing arms in defence of the Revolution daily and nightly, we had the right to criticize and seek to get the movement set in a proper direction. I-man was a firm supporter originally of Maurice, but when I start to witness certain abuses, I realize that Rasta had to speak up to ensure that the people got their rights.
Because, to be honest, the Rastas could have secured their own particular interests during the time of the Revolution, but it would have been at the expense of the rights of the masses of people. Things were going on and the leadership that was supposed to be responsible for the Revolution did not even know. But I was in full touch with the people, so I knew what was going down. I was a decorated soldier and main security for the top Party echelons. Three times they begged I to take on the responsibility for the personal security of the PM. Everywhere the CC went, I had to be there. So I had access to their private counsels and I knew everything that they knew, as well as what they did not know. And for that cause, when I exposed them, they tried desperately on several occasions to kill I. But they couldn’t kill the Rastaman at all. By the powers of Sellassie I, I live to record this portion of history.
In the pre-modern period of Somalia’s history protracted wars were waged, with the Ethiopians even in modern times, as was the case with the Italo-Ethiopian war’s, in the Ethiopian emperor Menellek II’, time the “Battle of Adowa”, was fought against the Italian invaders.
Image: The emperor Menellek II claims lineage from King Solomon and the queen of Sheba.The images at right are an example of Ethiopian soldiers during Menellek II’, time it was soldiers like these that routed the Italians at the battle of Adowa. Even during the reign of Haile Sellassie, the Ethiopian soldiers were outfitted with weapons and clothing of the type, that the soldiers above are displaying.
Menellek II, was the grandfather of the successor to the throne Lej Iyasu. Lej Iyasu was imprisoned by Haile Sellassie after he was captured, in a battle between his forces and that of Ras Tafari. Lej Iyasu was captured in 1921 and imprisoned. Josef ben Jochannan, claimed that Haile Sellassie poisoned him, in order to usurp the throne. The poisoning of an enemy imprisoned for nearly twelve years seems highly unlikely. There are even more unlikely tales and rumors abounding concerning Haile Sellassie not the least of which was the one concocted by Timothy White in his book Catch a Fire. White is indisputably a great writer, who blends fiction and fact in his book creating an Epic type narrative, to titillate his readership. An example of White’s fiction and fact blending, is page 36 of Catch a Fire, where he claims Lej Iyasu was chained in golden chains and fed opulently enjoying a life in ‘captive luxury”, where he could freely cohabitate with the many concubines that Haile Sellassie had sent to him for his pleasure. Not only is that narrative highly unlikely, it is culturally inaccurate and also most importantly he can cite no source that would verify his claims. Another example of his meanderings and deliberate mythologizing of Haile Sellassie are his claims that an old abbot examing Tafari’s palms upon discovering stigmata” there, fled from Tafari, terrified. The stigmata of the “Roman Catholic Institution” are the so-called nail prints in the palm of Jesus. What purpose could such embellishments serve but to reinforce, the beliefs and sympathies of those White’s book is marketed to? Not Rastafari as such but people open to the type of innuendo and suppositions that are rife throughout White’s book.
I have viewed thousands of hours of video and now DVD footage of Haile Sellassie , read and re-read hundreds of books, replete with pictures of him waving and some with both hands fully exposed, I have yet to see any nail prints in the palm of his hand, and I am yet to find anyone who can credibly prove with documented factual evidence, that such was ever the case, I rest my case (no pun intended).
Menellek II was emperor of Ethiopia; during the attempted invasion of Ethiopia by the Italians, the Italians were routed, in what became known as the battle of Adowa in 1896.
I have not stated my personal opinions here, nor am I attempting to convert anyone or change another person’s point of view, every person has the right to believe whatever they want to, but no one can change facts.
The aim of this book in this section is to furnish facts hereby equipping persons in the African Diaspora, to identify between various aspects of our experience in the Diaspora.
I have laid bare the facts researched by highly skilled professors who have shown, that the actual origins of Rastafari are esoteric and not bible based. The foundation of Rastafari is in tantricism not in the bible as so many erroneously state.
Image: Zaouditou wife of emperor Menellek and mother of Taitu. The title of Empress of Ethiopia or Queen of the Kings of Ityoppia ,was conferred on her in 1917, by the Monophysite Ethiopian Orthodox Church and the Shoan nobility.Muslims, led by Iyasu were seeking to subvert three Milennia of Solomonic succession. Iyasu who had been excommunicated by the leaders of the Orthodox Church, upon his conversion to Islam, was Menellek’s chosen successor. The recently named Ras Tafari, prevailed upon Zaouditou to name him as regent, she acquiesced to his request preferring to keep the royal scepter out of the hands of the Muslim apostate Lij Yasu. Zaouditou was empress in name only, even with her immense influence it was the strikingly handsome, Tafari Makonnen with his electrifying magnetic presence and his direct descent from the Shoan imperial dynasty who the common people and increasingly some in the nobility regarded as a potent force, who may one day ascend to the highest office in Ityoppia that of Negusa Nagast, King of the Kings of Ityoppia/Emperor or “Atse”.
Image: This photo is of a young Tafari Makonnen with his father Ras Makonnen. Queer tales circulated about the young Tafari’ ability to communicate with animals, Kapucinski in his book “The Emperor “,stated, that former intimates of Haile Sellassie, told him Sellassie himself was the source of the rumours. Eventhough many Ethiopians claimed to be Christians, they were and still are a deeply superstitious people who still revert to the pre-Christian practices of their ancestors.
Lady Taitu seen at far right of page, embroidered on the front of her garment are the two lions and the crown in the middle. The lions are symbolic for the Lion of Judah which the Ethiopian imperial house identified with as the messiah/savior of the Ethiopian people; this was in keeping with Orthodox teaching.
Haile Sellassie was born on July 23, 1982 an Amhara, this group was the dominant ethnic group, or ruling class at the time.The Oromo fell on the lower stratum of the social hierarchy and were largely Muslim; with the Amhara being predominantly, Coptic Christian, presided over by Abuna’s/Bishops.
Haile Sellassie, s father was a duke, Ras Makonnen, he was related to the emperor Menelik II, his wife lady Yishimabet was the mother of Haile Sellassie. Tafari the pre-coronation name of Haile Sellassie was raised by his father’s Cousin Fitawrari Haile Sellassie Abeynah who was a general.
Born in Ejarsa Gora, raised in the lush Harage province eighteen miles from Harare, his birth name was, Emmanuel later his baptismal name Haile Sellassie Light of the Trinity, to his consternation would be intoned by men thousands of miles away from his birthplace, but the child had no way of knowing, oblivious to all else he clung hungrily to his mother’s breast’s savoring, the velvety smoothness of the life-giving milk, he hungrily satiated himself on. On the day of the child’s birth, his father according to tradition kept a silent vigil like a sentinel outside the round thatched hut, with its conical roof made of wattle-wood.
Image: Ras Makonnen wore a bandolier of cartridges around his waist not unlike the one on the man in the photo above, standing next to a seated Haile Sellassie.
Dressed completely in black, his bombazine tunic, made the haft of his jewelled sheathed sword, stand out against the stark black background. He wore atop his head an Italian-made fedora of the finest suave felt, around his waist was a bandolier of cartridges, tucked in at his waist was a finely carved ivory-handled custom made pistol. The customary gun bearer stood several paces behind his master, maintaining the respectful distance; he cradled the fine rifle, sheathed in fine silk, the color of which was purple. Farther from both men, fanned out, standing at ease, was a large contingent of soldier’s in full ceremonial regalia, each man held a fully loaded carbine. Beyond the massing men a tight semi-circle of peasants knelt, reverently chanting zemas (prayers),their chants filled the pitch black night with, a soul felt reverence that all the devout soldiers present acknowledged, with bowed heads muttering prayers of their own under their breath’s. In the small hut, physicians and servants ministered, to lady Yashimabet watched by priests who held their malwamiyas, reverently since they were consecrated, the prayer sticks were never laid on the ground or used as a walking stick. The baby who would become Tafari Makonnen was washed and anointed, with the finest oils, while his lips were daubed in melted, butter blessed by priests. Hundreds of guns were fired by the soldiers outside, when the father finally emerged from the little hut, intoning with raised voice; “a boy, he is a boy”.
The gunshots from hundreds of rifles rang out in the night, shattering the silence and eclipsing the softly chanted prayers and psalms, the deafening cacophony echo and reverberate endlessly, lightning flashed, once, twice, three times, brightly illuminating the contingent, the men’s spirits are uplifted, filled with joy at their lords’ good providence.
Ras Makonnen knows the child will have to learn the art of state craft from his youth up. The palace intrigues were filled with low deeds in high places, rife with deceit, betrayals and disloyalty at every turn, a Dejazmatch hoping to become a ras needed, to be trained even in the ways of the west, since a broad-ranging knowledge was helpful and useful in enhancing ones skill set’s, thereby increasing ones chances in successful, diplomacy. With his sons future on his mind Makonnen, hired the French Martinican father Vitalien as his son’s tutor. I deliberately related the preceding in story-like prose as a means of conveying the milieu that Haile Sellassie grew up in and was born into. A brilliant young boy, who would grow up to be a seemingly “frail man”, eventually he would be emperor of Ethiopia, the scion of the Shoa dynasty would carry the Solomonic legacy into the 21st century, in the process he would become a “god”, to thousands , only to be deposed in a coup, even in death he is hailed as,“Jah Rastafari” by many, this portion of the book will examine him, and the people that hail him as their, “living” god!
Father Jarousseau the French Roman Catholic, was one of his earliest tutors. It was from Jarousseau, that Tafari learnt the French language, which he was quite fluent in.
In later years when Tafari nearly drowned, it was the French priest who saved his life, the priest drowned in the incident. Above right the young child Lij Tafari (Haile Sellassie) wearing the pectoral cross given to him by Jarousseau.
Left to right Tafari Belew, Tafari Makonnen (Haile Sellassie), middle Beru the children’s attendant and last Imru Haile Sellassie who later became a Ras. At right Tafari or Teferi, at age twelve just months before he was named Dejazmatch, or governor of some of Harage province, by his father.
Dr Joseph Vitalien, a black Catholic physician from Martinique, also tutored Ras Tafari.
Lej Iyasu the crown prince at the time converted to Islam and caused much consternation, when he began firing Christian government appointees and placing Muslims in their stead, he was finally deposed in a military coup.
With the most powerful noble’s and the greater part of the military supporting him Ras Tafari was crowned on November second 1930 along with his wife Empress Mennen.
Menen was of the Gala people and not Amharan like Haile Selassie.
The actual events surrounding the coronation itself are worth recounting herein; in order to establish the significance of the Coptic Church, and specifically the centrality of the Christian faith to the imperial office, and the importance placed on the observance of the Christian faith by the emperor himself.
A significant event that occurred prior to the coronation, was the return of the royal scepter to Ethiopia by the Duke of Gloucester, he came representing his father who was unable to make the trip.
It is a highly paradoxical development that some today, would attempt to divorce Haile Selassie from his openly Christian adherence and his constant veneration of Jesus as his Lord and Savior. It is with that thought in mind that I will attempt to describe what has been described by many authors over the years, which are the actual events and ceremonies surrounding the coronation of Haile Selassie, the recounting of said events herein are to highlight the significance of Christian doctrine to the Ethiopian royal house at that time.
Image: The state coach above was purchased from the Austrian emperor Franz Josef, drawn by a team of spotless white Hapsburg stallions, the coach gleamed resplendently in the sun. The driver was a former employee of Franz Josef hired by Ras Tafari , to drive him and his empress.
In Addis Ababa new roads had to be built to accommodate the large amount of traffic that would abound in November the date of the coronation. Invitations were sent to dignitaries all around the world. In mid-October the dignitaries began streaming into Addis Ababa via Djibouti on the Gulf of Aden, through French-Somaliland and through Ethiopia’s mountainous interior by railway. Amongst the many dignitaries were, the Duke of Gloucester, Isaburo Yoshida a Japanese delegate, Marshal Franchet d’Espercy a Frencman,Rear Admiral Prince Udine an Italian, Muhammad Tawfiq Nasim Pasha an Egyptian. The German President dispatched a private airplane bearing 500 bottles of fine Rhine wine. In a service at the Saint Georgis Cathedral on the eve of the coronation the emperor and his bride took part in an all-night prayer vigil. Ras Tafari and his wife prayed along with, the priest’s and the church deacons, dancing, singing the priest’s and deacon’s held their prayer sticks, swaying in time to the music, of harps , lyres, drums ,tambourines and an assortment of other instruments. The female choir singing, from time to time ululated as is the custom of Ethiopian women at such events.
Sunday November 2, 1930 at 7:00 most of the official guests were seated in the opulently decorated hall at the west side of the cathedral. At 7:30 A.M., the doors of the inner sanctum opened, and hundreds of priest’s made their way out chanting as they went, Haile Sellassie followed them out, as incense filled the cathedral shrouding him in a swirl of smoke, dressed in white silk communion robes Tafari Makonnen made his way slowly to his throne, and sat down.
The emperor was presented with the imperial symbols of his high office: the insignia of royalty, the gold embroidered scarlet robes, a saber encrusted with precious stones, the royal scepter, and the orb, the ring of Solomon, (a ring with a rampant gold lion set in onyx or obsidian), two diamond rings, and two lances.
Then the Abuna anointed his brow and placed the majestic crown fitted with jewels, diamonds and precious stones on his head, the crown of the emperor and empress were valued at one million U.S. dollars, the crowns were fashioned in such a manner that they incorporated the seal of Solomon and the Lion of Judah crest (the hand-delivered crowns were kept by the priest’s according to sacral tradition in order for them to be prayed over by the priest’s for the required 21 days prior to the coronation), the Abuna crowned Ras Tafari: “Haile Sellassie I Power of The Trinity, Two Hundred Twenty fifth Emperor of the Solomonic Dynasty, Elect of God, Lord of Lords King of kings Conquering Lion of The Tribe of Judah”. The Abuna then invoked the following prayer: “That God may make this crown a crown of sanctity and glory. That by the grace and blessings which we have given you may have an unshakeable faith and a pure heart, in order that you may inherit the crown eternal. So be it”. Crown Prince Asfa Wossen knelt before the emperor in a posture of sublime submission; one hundred and one cannons elicited a thunderous salute to H.I.M., outside the sanctuary. Though the peasants and common people were barred from attending the coronation they, nevertheless celebrated the crowning of the emperor.
Haile Selassie broke with tradition and was coronated along with his consort empress Mennen.
In her book The First Rasta, Helen Lee the French female journalist claims that Haile Selassie considered himself to be in her words white, a Caucasian, nothing could be farther from the truth. Selassie claimed an Amharic heritage, which is an African ethnic group.
The word Semite in reference to Amhara Ethiopians is an invention of white racist academicians, culturally, and ethnologically, Haile Selassie was in the strictest sense an African. An example of his African cultural heritage can be seen, on the BBC documentary of Haile Selassie during the Italo Ethiopian war, several warriors can be observed dancing, and chanting , and boasting of their valorous acts before the emperor’s throne, and recounting their valorous deeds, the scene is very African and possesses a decidedly non-European character.
The Semitic connection was introduced into his gene pool through the union of Solomon, and the queen of Sheba or queen Makeda her African name. (authors note: examine the photo of Haile Selassie’ father and his pronounced African features. The arrogance and crassness of certain European scholars when writing about Africans borders on the neurotic. Below emperors Tewodros and Johannes sporting the braided hairstyles so popular amongst blacks in the West and in Africa. Many European scholars identified these men as white, yet their culture, language and ethnic heritage is identical in so many aspects to that of Africans on the continent and elsewhere that the true reason for claiming them as Europeans become apparent. Were the Europeans to acknowledge the African for what he is at the outset they would have had no basis at all for their racist theories and suppositions. Therefore having no basis in fact for them to claim an entire continent and its inhabitants to be their inferior. They had to invent a Caucasian heritage for all outstanding African cultures. therein lay the downfall of Western academia for in teaching and perpetuating fiction as fact they robbed generations of their own people of the true value of factual empirical knowledge and for the most part intellectually crippled them and the descendants of the African in their midst. Scholarship of the type you are reading is an attempt to right the injustice, yet it is a minuscule droplet in a sea of decadence and ignorance.
The above newspaper article contains some examples of the type of stupidity spouted by certain western “scholars”. No doubt Helen Lee was influenced by the innuendo and outright lies of the type shown above. I will include the article dated July 24th 1954 in its entirety here. “Haile’s gold medal awarded to Rogers. NEW YORK- By imperial command of emperor, Haile Sellassie, J.A. Rogers was summoned to the Waldorf Astoria last Thursday, presented with a gold medal and given an order of 128 copies of Rogers’ book, “Worlds Great men of Color, 3000 B.C. to 1946 A.D.” After the presentation Mr Rogers said: “This ought to squelch the belief that he considers himself white and is not interested in colored Americans”. “I first met him at his coronation in 1930”. “At 61 the emperor is in excellent health, he underwent a physical exam at the Harkness Pavillion of the Presbytarian hospital and passed with flying colors”. Mr Rogers revealed he is working on two new books; one of them is a book of amazing facts entitled, “A book of amazing facts about the colored American from 1512 to the present”. Mr Rogers says he has enough important facts to fill several volumes. Commenting on John Gunther’s story in the Readers Digest in which said Gunther, “The Ethiopians consider themselves to be white no matter what their color is”. This is an entirely false interpretation. “Ethiopians do consider themselves the equal of anybody, which is something entirely different”, says Rogers. “I discussed this with many of the Highest Ethiopians they regard themselves as Black people, Africans”. There are many more such articles to be found in Western media with direct quotes from Haile Sellassie himself with regards to his ethnicity; suffice it to say that I am satisfied with the evidence presented in this book thus far on the preceding.
The Ethiopian imperial structure was centralized in the person of the emperor.
The inability of the average West Indian to fully grasp Ethiopian culture, is understandable the complexities of distinguishing between the Amhara, for instance and the Falasha, or the Gala, or any other ethnic group in existence in Ethiopia quite frankly, would be far too staggering for the average high school dropout in the West Indies. It is exactly because of this handicap that men like Howell were able to preach and teach an erroneous doctrine to ignorant persons.
Image: Close examination of the throne will reveal two lion’s heads on the right and the left of the throne on which Haile Sellassie is seated. This picture has been included to show, the pronounced Jewish influenced traditions in the Solomonic dynasty of Haile Sellassie, no one can deny that the Ethiopians had previous contact with Jews.
Before I go any further, I would like to say here for the record that Haile Sellassie confessed Jesus as his personal lord and savior. I esteem his person very highly, I regard him as a great personal influence, and motivation in my own life, with that said I would like to include here a quote from Haile Sellassie himself as pertains to his personal regard for the bible and I quote.
“We in Ethiopia have one of the oldest versions of the bible, but however old the version may be, in whatever language it might be written the word remains one and the same. It transcends all boundaries of empires and all conception of race it is eternal.
No doubt you all remember reading in the Acts of the Apostles how Philip baptized the Ethiopian official. He is the first Ethiopian on record to have followed Christ and from that day onwards the, word of God has continued to grow in the hearts of Ethiopians. Moreover, I might say for myself that from my early childhood, I was taught to appreciate the bible and my love for it increases with the passage of time. All through my troubles, I have found it a cause of infinite comfort (quoting Jesus). “Come unto me, all ye that labor and are heavy laden and I will give you rest”. Who can resist an invitation so full of compassion?
Because of this personal experience in the goodness of the bible, I was resolved that all my countrymen should also share its great blessing, and that by reading the bible they should find truth for themselves. Therefore, I caused a new translation to be made from our ancient language (Geez) into the language which the old and the young understood and spoke (Amharic).
Today man sees all his hopes and aspirations crumbling before him. He must realize that the bible is his refuge and the rallying point for all humanity. In it man will find the solution of his present difficulties and guidance for his future action.
And unless he accepts with clear conscience the bible and its great message, he cannot hope for salvation. For my part I glory in the bible”.
The name Haile Sellassie is an Amharic word, the Amharic language is classified as a Semitic language in the same language group as Hebrew, which is a fallacious attempt to divorce Ethiopians from their African ethnicity, an impossibility that is still being attempted by certain Caucasian pseudo-scholars.
The name literally means power of the trinity the Hebrew equivalent of the word Selassie is Sh’lee-shee the word means third , Tafari his childhood name prefixed by the title Ras in the Hebrew is Tiph-ah-rah and Tiph-eh-reth in the English transliteration it is rendered Tiferet the word means beauty or glory .
Some attribute messiah ship to Haile Selassie; indeed he did execute the role of a political savior in that he defended the sovereignty of Ethiopia valiantly. It was because of the steadfast faith in God, of the Ethiopian warriors that they were able to defeat the Italian hordes, yet there is no biblical proof nor shred of evidence supporting or promoting any claim that Haile Selassie was God incarnate the Messiah of the ages.
As can be seen from his own account Haile Sellassie considered himself a mere mortal and a subject of Jesus the Messiah.
Haile Selassie is a product of a culture that has co-opted many aspects of Judaism into its Canon, from his triple crown to his kingly scepter and royal globe/orb signifying universal or perpetual ruler ship all these are adaptations of the Hebrew Theocratic way of life.
Which was God ordained kingship Government ruled by God.
The Ethiopians co-opted Judaism which remains to this day a deeply religious society, the fact that, the Ethiopian religious culture bears resemblances to the Hebrew religious culture attests to the fact that the Hebrew’s influence was far flung, and far ranging from it’s infancy until today. Hebrew culture has influenced the earth’s population and will continue to do so.
Tafari Makonnen would later become known by his baptismal name, Haile Sellassie,
This became his regnal appellation upon his coronation as emperor.
Haile Sellassie was the only emperor of the twentieth century who actually fought, in Battle alongside his troops; he operated an Oerlikon anti-aircraft gun during the Italo Ethiopian war.
Haile Sellassie was the only emperor of the twentieth century who actually fought, in Battle alongside his troops; he operated an Oerlikon anti-aircraft gun during the Italo Ethiopian war.
Image: Haile Sellassie marching with his troops into battle. Sellassie is in the front row sixth from right. The Ethiopian soldiers would chant: “Negus, our Negus, only you can save us, our lines in the south have been caught in a rout. And to the north of Makale all our tactics are folly. Negus, our Negus give me shot give me powder.
The October 12 1935, Italian aggression against Ethiopia orchestrated by the fascist Benito Mussolini, was the second attempt by the Italians to conquer Ethiopia.
At Maichew, March 31, 1936, the emperor led his troops on the battlefield.
During the Italo-Ethiopian war poison gas bombs (Mustard gas), were dropped wholesale by the Italians on men, women, children, and animals as well as crops.
The unscrupulous use of Mustard gas by the Italians; in direct contravention of the Geneva Convention of 1907, poisoned the crops on the farmland of the Ethiopian farmers, large tracts of farmland were rendered infertile for generations to come, the resultant starvation that plagued Ethiopia in later years, some historians have attributed to the detrimental ecological effects of Mustard gas. On the issue of Mustard Gas Haile Sellassie in J.A. Rogers’ book World’s Great Men of Color volume I said that: “It was at the time when the operations for the encircling of Makalle were taking place that the Italian command, fearing rout, followed the procedure which it is now my duty to denounce to the world. Special sprayers were installed on board aircraft so that they could vaporize, over vast areas of territory a fine death dealing rain. Groups of nine, fifteen, eighteen aircraft followed one another so that the fog issuing forth from them formed a continuous sheet. It was thus that, as far as the end of January, 1936, soldiers, women , children, cattle, rivers, lakes and pastures were drenched continually with the deadly rain .In order to kill off systematically all living creatures: in order the more surely to poison waters and pastures, the Italian command made its aircraft to pass over and over again. That was its chief method of warfare.
The very refinement of barbarism consisted in carrying ravage and terror into the most densely populated parts of the territory the points farthest removed from the scene of hostilities. The object was to scatter fear and death over a great part of the Ethiopian territory. These Fearful tactics succeeded. Men and animals succumbed. The deadly rain that fell from the aircraft made all those whom it touched fly shrieking with pain. All those who drank the poisoned water or ate the infected food also succumbed in dreadful suffering. In tens of thousands the victims of Italian mustard gas fell. It is in order to denounce to the civilized world the tortures inflicted upon the Ethiopian people that I resolved to come to Geneva.
Above Hitler and his cohort Mussolini.
Image: Oblivious to his own safety Haile Selassie walked on unexploded bombs on his palace grounds and collected some, that he could carry and painstakingly logged information concerning the makeup of the bombs into a logbook that he carried.
Haile Selassie issued a general mobilization proclamation to the Ethiopian people before the war, the proclamation read: “People of my land of Ethiopia. You know that Ethiopia has moved on her way continuously from the time of Menelik the first, and has endured, has been recognized, and respected in her liberty.
Previously, forty years ago, Italy, proud in her skill and in her strength, desired to destroy the liberty of Ethiopia, and to enslave her people and to rule over them: she came into the midst of our land and fought against us.
Our God, who loves not violence, aided us and gave us the victory; but we did not seek to recover that part of our land, which had gone from us.
Pushing forward on the frontiers by Hamasien and Somalia, they took our territory: and you can see with your eyes and hear with your ears how our brothers, in that land they took, have borne the yoke of slavery.
While we grieve at the violence perpetrated against them, we do not seek the territory, which has gone from us.
Now once again they are planning to cast the yoke of slavery upon the people dwelling in the whole of our country.
They brought troops by stealth into Ogaden and killed our men who were seeking no quarrel: they have broken the treaty we concluded with them.
We had already entered the League of Nations, which was established to maintain the peace of the world, therefore we gave notice to the League of Nations, so that the quarrel at Walwal might be looked into by arbitrators according to the law, and the guilty party might be recognized.”
Image: This photo is of Haile Selassie addressing the League of Nations, hoping to avoid war by a policy of non-aggression in 1936. His efforts however were futile, Italian journalists seeking to create a disturbance and diminish the effectiveness of his speech vociferously and rudely heckled him.
Before descending the rostrum, Sellassie uttered these prophetic words, “Today for us tomorrow it will be you,” his words came to fruition in the Italian defeat at the hands of the allies, and the subsequent execution of Benito Mussolini by his own countrymen.
The photo above at right of the page shows Mussolini and some of his cohorts, hanging, upside down, murdered by the “adoring masses”, of Italians who mere months prior hailed them as heroes.
Selassie hoped to appeal to the collective conscience of the League. With quite determination and a steely resolve taking a deep breath steadying his nerves, he knew this was a pivotal moment his countrymen depended on him he was their servant and representative before the largest world body politic, the hypocritical League of Nations what would histories verdict be? he wondered. With his unwavering faith in God the austere monarch began to outline his policy speaking in his native Amharic, the beleaguered Sellassie championed the very values that the league claimed to defend, in 1936.Twenty seven years later Sellassie’s prophetic words had come to pass, he would again go before the world body which was by then the United Nations, vindicated and victorious, Clearing his throat Haile Sellassie uttered the following words before the hypocritical league, on October 1963:
“Twenty-seven years ago, as Emperor of Ethiopia, I mounted the rostrum in Geneva, Switzerland, to address the League of Nations and to appeal for relief from the destruction which had been unleashed against my defenceless nation, by the Fascist invader. I spoke then both to and for the conscience of the world. My words went unheeded, but history testifies to the accuracy of the warning that I gave in 1936.
Today, I stand before the world organization which has succeeded to the mantle discarded by its discredited predecessor. In this body is enshrined the principle of collective security which I unsuccessfully invoked at Geneva. Here, in this Assembly, reposes the best – perhaps the last – hope for the peaceful survival of mankind.
In 1936, I declared that it was not the Covenant of the League that was at stake, but international morality. Undertakings, I said then, are of little worth if the will to keep them is lacking. The Charter of the United Nations expresses the noblest aspirations of man: abjuration of force in the settlement of disputes between states; the assurance of human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language or religion; the safeguarding of international peace and security.
But these, too, as were the phrases of the Covenant, are only words; their value depends wholly on our will to observe and honor them and give them content and meaning. The preservation of peace and the guaranteeing of man’s basic freedoms and rights require courage and eternal vigilance: courage to speak and act – and if necessary, to suffer and die – for truth and justice; eternal vigilance, that the least transgression of international morality shall not go undetected and unremedied. These lessons must be learned anew by each succeeding generation, and that generation is fortunate indeed which learns from other than its own bitter experience. This Organization and each of its members bear a crushing and awesome responsibility: to absorb the wisdom of history and to apply it to the problems of the present, in order that future generations may be born, and live, and die, in peace.
The record of the United Nations during the few short years of its life affords mankind a solid basis for encouragement and hope for the future. The United Nations has dared to act, when the League dared not in Palestine, in Korea, in Suez, in the Congo. There is not one among us today who does not conjecture upon the reaction of this body when motives and actions are called into question. The opinion of this Organization today acts as a powerful influence upon the decisions of its members. The spotlight of world opinion, focused by the United Nations upon the transgressions of the renegades of human society, has thus far proved an effective safeguard against unchecked aggression and unrestricted violation of human rights.
The United Nations continues to sense as the forum where nations whose interests clash may lay their cases before world opinion. It still provides the essential escape valve without which the slow build-up of pressures would have long since resulted in catastrophic explosion. Its actions and decisions have speeded the achievement of freedom by many people’s on the continents of Africa and Asia. Its efforts have contributed to the advancement of the standard of living of peoples in all corners of the world.
For this, all men must give thanks. As I stand here today, how faint, how remote are the memories of 1936.How different in 1963 are the attitudes of men. We then existed in an atmosphere of suffocating pessimism. Today, cautious yet buoyant optimism is the prevailing spirit. But each one of us here knows that what has been accomplished is not enough.
The United Nations judgments have been and continue to be subject to frustration, as individual member-states have ignored its pronouncements and disregarded its recommendations. The Organization’s sinews have been weakened, as member-states have shirked their obligations to it. The authority of the Organization has been mocked, as individual member-states have proceeded, in violation of its commands, to pursue their own aims and ends. The troubles which continue to plague us virtually all arise among member states of the Organization, but the Organization remains impotent to enforce acceptable solutions. As the maker and enforcer of the international law, what the United Nations has achieved still falls regrettably short of our goal of an international community of nations.
This does not mean that the United Nations has failed. I have lived too long to cherish many illusions about the essential high-mindedness of men when brought into stark confrontation with the issue of control over their security, and their property interests. Not even now, when so much is at hazard would many nations willingly entrust their destinies to other hands.
Yet, this is the ultimatum presented to us: secure the conditions whereby men will entrust their security to a larger entity, or risk annihilation; persuade men that their salvation rests in the subordination of national and local interests to the interests of humanity, or endanger man’s future. These are the objectives, yesterday unobtainable, today essential, which we must labor to achieve.
Until this is accomplished, mankind’s future remains hazardous and permanent peace a matter for speculation. There is no single magic formula, no one simple step, no words, whether written into the Organization’s Charter or into a treaty between states, which can automatically guarantee to us what we seek. Peace is a day-to-day problem, the product of a multitude of events and judgments. Peace is not an “is”, it is a “becoming.” We cannot escape the dreadful possibility of catastrophe by miscalculation. But we can reach the right decisions on the myriad subordinate problems which each new day poses, and we can thereby make our contribution and perhaps the most that can be reasonably expected of us in 1963 to the preservation of peace. It is here that the United Nations has served us – not perfectly, but well. And in enhancing the possibilities that the Organization may serve us better, we serve and bring closer our most cherished goals.
I would mention briefly today two particular issues which are of deep concern to all men: disarmament and the establishment of true equality among men. Disarmament has become the urgent imperative of our time. I do not say this because I equate the absence of arms to peace, or because I believe that bringing an end to the nuclear arms race automatically guarantees the peace, or because the elimination of nuclear warheads from the arsenals of the world will bring in its wake that change in attitude requisite to the peaceful settlement of disputes between nations. Disarmament is vital today, quite simply, because of the immense destructive capacity of which men dispose.
Ethiopia supports the atmospheric nuclear test ban treaty as a step towards this goal, even though only a partial step. Nations can still perfect weapons of mass destruction by underground testing. There is no guarantee against the sudden, unannounced resumption of testing in the atmosphere.
The real significance of the treaty is that it admits of a tacit stalemate between the nations which negotiated it, a stalemate which recognizes the blunt, unavoidable fact that none would emerge from the total destruction which would be the lot of all in a nuclear war, a stalemate which affords us and the United Nations a breathing space in which to act.
Here is our opportunity and our challenge. If the nuclear powers are prepared to declare a truce, let us seize the moment to strengthen the institutions and procedures which will serve as the means for the pacific settlement of disputes among men. Conflicts between nations will continue to arise. The real issue is whether they are to be resolved by force, or by resort to peaceful methods and procedures, administered by impartial institutions. This very Organization itself is the greatest such institution, and it is in a more powerful United Nations that we seek, and it is here that we shall find, the assurance of a peaceful future.
Were a real and effective disarmament achieved and the funds now spent in the arms race devoted to the amelioration of man’s state; were we to concentrate only on the peaceful uses of nuclear knowledge, how vastly and in how short a time might we change the conditions of mankind. This should be our goal.
When we talk of the equality of man, we find, also, a challenge and an opportunity; a challenge to breathe new life into the ideals enshrined in the Charter, an opportunity to bring men closer to freedom and true equality and thus, closer to a love of peace.
The goal of the equality of man which we seek is the antithesis of the exploitation of one people by another with which the pages of history and in particular those written of the African and Asian continents, speak at such length. Exploitation, thus viewed, has many faces. But whatever guise it assumes, this evil is to be shunned where it does not exist and crushed where it does. It is the sacred duty of this Organization to ensure that the dream of equality is finally realized for all men to whom it is still denied, to guarantee that exploitation is not reincarnated in other forms in places whence it has already been banished.
As a free Africa has emerged during the past decade, a fresh attack has been launched against exploitation, wherever it still exists. And in that interaction so common to history, this in turn, has stimulated and encouraged the remaining dependent peoples to renewed efforts to throw off the yoke which has oppressed them and its claim as their birth right the twin ideals of liberty and equality. This very struggle is a struggle to establish peace, and until victory is assured, that brotherhood and understanding which nourish and give life to peace can be but partial and incomplete.
In the United States of America, the administration of President Kennedy is leading a vigorous attack to eradicate the remaining vestige of racial discrimination from this country. We know that this conflict will be won and that right will triumph. In this time of trial, these efforts should be encouraged and assisted, and we should lend our sympathy and support to the American Government today.
Last May, in Addis Ababa, I convened a meeting of Heads of African States and Governments. In three days, the thirty-two nations represented at that Conference demonstrated to the world that when the will and the determination exist, nations and peoples of diverse backgrounds can and will work together, in unity, to the achievement of common goals and the assurance of that equality and brotherhood which we desire.
On the question of racial discrimination, the Addis Ababa Conference taught, to those who will learn, this further lesson: “That until the philosophy which holds one race superior and another inferior is finally and permanently discredited and abandoned: That until there are no longer first-class and second class citizens of any nation; That until the color of a man’s skin is of no more significance than the color of his eyes; That until the basic human rights are equally guaranteed to all without regard to race; That until that day, the dream of lasting peace and world citizenship and the rule of international morality will remain but a fleeting illusion, to be pursued but never attained; And until the ignoble and unhappy regimes that hold our brothers in Angola, in Mozambique and in South Africa in subhuman bondage have been toppled and destroyed; Until bigotry and prejudice and malicious and inhuman self-interest have been replaced by understanding and tolerance and good-will; Until all Africans stand and speak as free beings, equal in the eyes of all men, as they are in the eyes of Heaven; Until that day, the African continent will not know peace. We Africans will fight, if necessary and we know that we shall win, as we are confident in the victory of good over evil”.
The United Nations has done much, both directly and indirectly to speed the disappearance of discrimination and oppression from the earth. Without the opportunity to focus world opinion on Africa and Asia which this Organization provides, the goal, for many, might still lie ahead, and the struggle would have taken far longer. For this, we are truly grateful.
But more can be done. The basis of racial discrimination and colonialism has been economic, and it is with economic weapons that these evils have been and can be overcome. In pursuance of resolutions adopted at the Addis Ababa Summit Conference, African States have undertaken certain measures in the economic field which, if adopted by all member states of the United Nations, would soon reduce intransigence to reason. I ask, today, for adherence to these measures by every nation represented here which is truly devoted to the principles enunciated in the Charter.
I do not believe that Portugal and South Africa are prepared to commit economic or physical suicide if honorable and reasonable alternatives exist. I believe that such alternatives can be found. But I also know that unless peaceful solutions are devised, counsels of moderation and temperance will avail for naught; and another blow will have been dealt to this Organization which will hamper and weaken still further its usefulness in the struggle to ensure the victory of peace and liberty over the forces of strife and oppression. Here, then, is the opportunity presented to us. We must act while we can, while the occasion exists to exert those legitimate pressures available to us, lest time run out and resort be had to less happy means.
Does this Organization today possess the authority and the will to act? And if it does not, are we prepared to clothe it with the power to create and enforce the rule of law? Or is the Charter a mere collection of words, without content and substance, because the essential spirit is lacking? The time in which to ponder these questions is all too short. The pages of history are full of instances in which the unwanted and the shunned nonetheless occurred because men waited to act until too late. We can brook no such delay.
If we are to survive, this Organization must survive. To survive, it must be strengthened. Its executive must be vested with great authority. The means for the enforcement of its decisions must be fortified, and, if they do not exist, they must be devised. Procedures must be established to protect the small and the weak when threatened by the strong and the mighty. All nations which fulfil the conditions of membership must be admitted and allowed to sit in this assemblage.
Equality of representation must be assured in each of its organs. The possibilities which exist in the United Nations to provide the medium whereby the hungry may be fed, the naked clothed, the ignorant instructed, must be seized on and exploited for the flower of peace is not sustained by poverty and want. To achieve this requires courage and confidence. The courage, I believe, we possess. The confidence must be created, and to create confidence we must act courageously.
The great nations of the world would do well to remember that in the modern age even their own fates are not wholly in their hands. Peace demands the united efforts of us all. Who can foresee what spark might ignite the fuse? It is not only the small and the weak who must scrupulously observe their obligations to the United Nations and to each other. Unless the smaller nations are accorded their proper voice in the settlement of the world’s problems, unless the equality which Africa and Asia have struggled to attain is reflected in expanded membership in the institutions which make up the United Nations, confidence will come just that much harder. Unless the rights of the least of men are as assiduously protected as those of the greatest, the seeds of confidence will fall on barren soil.
The stake of each one of us is identical – life or death. We all wish to live. We all seek a world in which men are freed of the burdens of ignorance, poverty, hunger and disease. And we shall all be hard-pressed to escape the deadly rain of nuclear fall-out should catastrophe overtake us.
When I spoke at Geneva in 1936, there was no precedent for a head of state addressing the League of Nations. I am neither the first, nor will I be the last head of state to address the United Nations, but only I have addressed both the League and this Organization in this capacity. The problems which confront us today are, equally, unprecedented. They have no counterparts in human experience. Men search the pages of history for solutions, for precedents, but there are none. This, then, is the ultimate challenge. Where are we to look for our survival, for the answers to the questions which have never before been posed? We must look, first, to Almighty God, Who has raised man above the animals and endowed him with intelligence and reason. We must put our faith in Him, that He will not desert us or permit us to destroy humanity which He created in His image. And we must look into ourselves, into the depth of our souls. We must become something we have never been and for which our education and experience and environment have ill-prepared us. We must become bigger than we have been: more courageous, greater in spirit, larger in outlook. We must become members of a new race, overcoming petty prejudice, owing our ultimate allegiance not to nations but to our fellow men within the human community.” Certainly one of his most enlightened speeches, undoubtedly Haile Sellassie, was a visionary far ahead of his time many of the points he conceptualized in his speeches, have yet to see their enactment in our times, on the contrary the use of science in the Western hemisphere, seems to be an impossibility in the present geo-political context. Although I cannot uphold the United Nations as an actual answer to mankind’s myriad malaise, the things that he conceptualized could conceivably be put into practice. The leadership in the world today particularly the western hemisphere, are part of a Global Military Industrial Complex, headed by the United States of America, the economic strength of this global juggernaut lies in Wall Street and London. The Military Industrial Complex is powered by the multi-national corporations which are chiefly owned and operated by Anglo’s largely of a European or American nationality. Increasingly Asian nations, such as India and China are vying to supplant the western militarized industrial complex with their own. The world is being continually divided into spheres of influence, all in direct fulfillment of bible prophecy. That Haile Sellassie saw our future is a testament of his vision and thorough understanding of geo-political affairs, no mere “intellectual”, the spiritual insight that he was endowed with was certainly God given, yet he was astute enough to present a humble exterior, which belied his wisdom. Haile Sellassie in this book is presented as a seminal figure, in the context of his historical import and his cross cultural influences and global impact, regrettably more could not be included in this book pertinent to such an elusive and legendary figure as Haile Sellassie. The actual proclamation was included; as an aid in the general understanding of the reader, into the actual events that took place, and especially, into the temperament of Haile Sellassie at the time that the actual events unfolded.
Famed black history teacher and icon D.R. Joseph Ben Jochannan has gone on record stating, that Haile Selassie was installed as emperor illegally, and that he was a murderer of both queen Zawditu, and Lej Iyasu, through my own studies of the man I have found
Not one shred of evidence to support such a theory, I personally have found Haile Selassie to be a good and godly man.
From left to right Tafari, as Dejazmatch (Dejazmatch literally Keeper of the Door), middle Beru Tafari’s childhood attendant , the smaller man to the left is claimed by many to be Lij Iyasu his childhood name, who became a Moslem, and opposed Tafari militarily, he was captured and imprisoned, he died twelve years later. Iam in serious doubt as to the authenticity of those claims since Iyasu was the emperor Menellek’s grandson, who was next in line for the throne, in the photo above at left, the last man at right in photo, most likely was a servant of Ras Tafari. The photo at right with Ras Tafari and his servant Beru, who was also his childhood attendant i.e. servant. In all pictures except those of Tafari and other high ranking children of the Ethiopian nobility, the nobility are photographed wearing shoes whereas the servants always were shown without shoes. The pictures above only show Ras Tafari wearing shoes while the other men are in their bare feet, denoting their servile status. It is inconceivable that Lij Iyasu would pose in a manner servile to Ras Tafari since he was higher in the imperial hierarchy at that time than Haile Sellassie. The second photo the man next to ras Tafari (Haile Sellassie), is being alleged to be Iyasu he is clearly Beru, since he has been pictured with Haile Sellassie from their youth up and he is quite recognizable to those familiar with photos from the period in question.
Few leaders in the twentieth century displayed the type of love and compassion for his fellowman, as did Haile Selassie; he was a true leader in the fullest sense of the word. Diaspora Christians should carefully study his numerous books and works; in so doing
they will gain, a much needed understanding into the character, and Christian lifestyle of Haile Selassie. His life of prayer and his steadfast faith in God are rarely if ever discussed, yet in his book My Life and Ethiopia’s Progress he begins the book with a prayer to God, the same God that Christians worship, yet some decry Haile Selassie as a murderer and a thief falsely and erroneously. I want to include here an appropriate speech given by Haile Sellassie at Asmara University on August 1st 1971: “There is nothing more worthwhile and rewarding in life than to work for the benefit of others. One can derive more pleasure from giving than from receiving. We believe that each and every one of you who in leaving this institution for his or her respective calling has come to realize that education is seldom prized merely on account of its usefulness to individuals. Nor is it intended to be a mere ornament and a mark of distinction and prominence to the persons who are fortunate to receive it. Those who have had the opportunity to learn should always be at the disposal of those who have not had its benefit. Therefore, it is not only the individual but the community at large which should benefit from the virtues of education. The words of the Holy Bible, “Give and it shall be given unto you,” are worth observing in your daily lives. This momentous event should be a time in which you should reflect and pose to yourselves the questions, “what kind of service are we going to render to our country and what do we intend to accomplish in life?” It is our firm belief that if you forego self-love and self-indulgence and break away from worldly desires that you will be able to make great contributions to your family, community and country…”
Sadly, because of lack of resources and a clear-cut understanding of bible prophecy, many Jamaican Rastafari have spread a false doctrine of the divinity of Haile Selassie, equally guilty as some Christians of defamation of the character of the gentle Haile Selassie. It is the intent of this work to present as much as possible, well researched factual data on the man and his beliefs and value system.
I will like to introduce here some excerpts from the book written by Karl Philpot’s Naphtali in his book “The Testimony of His Imperial Majesty Emperor Haile Selassie defender of the faith.”
Karl Philpot’s is a Rastafari who adheres to the doctrines taught by Vernon Carrington better -known as Prophet Gad.
On page 109 we read that Vernon Carrington prophet of the Twelve Tribes of Israel, stated according to Philpot’s Naphtali that there is no name whereby mankind can be saved but by the name Jesus .
In his book Philpot’s acknowledges Jesus as the savior of mankind through the process of atonement, brought to fruition through the death burial and resurrection of Jesus.
SHAMANISM AS A GLOBAL CULTURAL VALUE SYSTEM vs APOSTOLIC CULTURE.
One of the critical geopolitical realities of our day is The adverse effects of GLOBAL TERRORISM. This book succinctly addresses the issue from a biblical perspective. It examines the effects of global terror on the Caribbean basins tourist driven economy.
My name is Wade Bailey and I accurately predicted the rise of the Islamic State in the Caribbean, since 2003. My critical analysis though posited from an Apostolic or biblical perspective is confirmed by US Generals, various reporters from the corporate and alternative media and professors and think tanks regionally as well as internationally. One such prominent personage is Daurius Figueria author, professor and lecturer at the University of the West Indies in Trinidad and Tobago. If you are resident in the Caribbean, a Caribbean heritage person or just an individual who travels to the region. The information in this book might hit a chord in you. It offers relevant real world solutions and information on a wide variety of topics, not limited to global terror, but an inclusive 21st nuanced approach. It examines Hip-Hop culture and its origins, Tupac Shakur the Black Panther’s and COINTELPRO and delves into insider information and pictures from the heyday of Death Row.
History on a global scale is examined and current events in light of bible prophecy.
If the above topics are of relevance to you then this book is for you. The Book Rastafari and its Shamanist Origins, is the work that sparked the current book in question.
Many claim that Rastafari was as a result of a “prophecy” by Marcus Mosiah Garvey.
Marcus Garvey the Jamaican-born 1930,s Black Nationalist and head of the U.N.I.A. was a vehement critic of Haile Selassie he maligned him for seeking British protection during the Italian aggression led by Benito Mussolini against Ethiopia in the nineteen thirties .
Garvey never recognized the Rastafari as a serious Black Nationalist organization.
Marcus Mosiah Garvey the Jamaican-born leader of the U.N.I.A. the Universal Negro Improvement Association. Garvey possessed a flair for the dramatic as is evinced in the choice of attire of him and his followers during their marches and rallies.
Garvey organized Africans on the continent and around the globe, around his Black Nationalist philosophy it is from the school of thought developed by this man, that many of the modern African intellectuals and Pan- Africanists gained their core ideology.
Although many earlier Garveyites later became Rastafari this was a personal choice not something inspired by a cohesive philosophy.
Garvey proclaimed many times in speeches that a prince would come out of Africa Ethiopia would soon stretch out her hands unto God quoting from psalms. In order to put into proper context what Garvey said I want to include some quotes pertinent to the alledged ‘prophecy”, by Marcus Garvey concerning Ethiopia. On November 8th 1930 Garvey published an article in his Jamaican newspaper the Black Man that read: “Last Sunday, a great ceremony took place at Addis Ababa, the capital of Abyssinia. It was the coronation of the new Emperor of Ethiopia — Ras Tafari. From reports and expectations, the scene was one of great splendor, and will long be remembered by those who were present. Several of the leading nations of Europe sent representatives to the coronation, there by paying their respects to a rising Negro nation that is destined to play a great part in the future history of the world. Abyssinia is the land of the blacks and we are glad to learn that even though Europeans have been trying to impress the Abyssinians that they are not belonging to the Negro race, they have learned the retort that they are, and they are proud to be so.
Haile Sellassie has travelled to the West including America and is therefore no stranger to European and American hypocrisy and methods; he must be regarded as a kind of a modern Emperor, and from what we understand and know of him, he intends to introduce modern methods and systems into his country. Already he has started to recruit from different sections of the world competent men in different branches of science to help develop his country to the position that she should occupy among the other nations of the world.We do hope that Ras Tafari will live long to carry out his wonderful intentions. From what we have heard and what we do know, he is ready and willing to extend the hand of invitation to any Negro who desires to settle in his kingdom. We know of many who are gone to Abyssinia and who have given good report of the great possibilities there, which they are striving to take advantage of.
The Psalmist prophesied that Princes would come out of Egypt and Ethiopia would
stretch forth her hands unto God (Psalm 68:31). We have no doubt that the time is now come. Ethiopia is now really stretching forth her hands. This great kingdom of the East has been hidden for many centuries, but gradually she is rising to take a leading place in the world and it is for us of the Negro race to assist in every way to hold up the hand of Emperor Ras Tafari”. I included the entire article as a means of allowing the reader an understanding of the general context in which, Garvey spoke. After having read the article on numerous occasions it is plain to see that Garvey regarded Haile Sellassie as someone who symbolized black pride and nationalism at the time in question.
Rupert Lewis wrote a scholarly analysis on the Rastafarians which he entitled: Marcus Garvey and the Early Rastafarians: Continuity and Discontinuity. In it he made certain interesting points and inferences, which are great for establishing a historically accurate documentary for the time period in question. I will include some of the more dynamic and poignant, which as the reader will see bears up many points made in the present work.
I think the following from Lewis is poignant in understanding the viewpoints of Howell and Marcus Garvey; “The anticolonial content of Howell’s preaching was clear in
his message that black people’s only true king was Emperor Haile Selassie. But Garvey did not approve of Howell’s teaching and rejected his claims that Selassie was God”. Robert Hill in his book often quoted in this work wrote that; Garvey refused to allow Howell to sell the emperors picture in Edelweis Park, Jamaican headquarters of the UNIA. Lewis went on to state that Garvey was decidedly pro Christian and the doctrines that Howell taught were of a defiant anti-Christian character, which Lewis cited would have been in obvious conflict with Garvey’s publicly expressed Christianity. When Italy invaded Ethiopia Rastafari and certain Garveyites protested in Montego Bay on the western portion of Jamaica, similarly protesters took to the streets in St Kitts, Trinidad and other West Indian territories. Lewis wrote that; “The Garveyite newspaper Plain Talk was commended by Dr. Malaku Bayen, Haile Selassie’s personal representative in the United States, who was in charge of organizing the Ethiopian World Federation”. Early Rastafarian leaders Joseph Nathaniel Hibbert, Archibald Dunkley, and many other Rastas were foundation members of the first local branch of the Ethiopian World Federation established in Jamaica. However, Garvey was very hostile in his criticism of Haile Selassie. As early as October 1935, Garvey had argued that the Italo-Ethiopian war “affords only another example of what unpreparedness means to a people.”
The following damning editorial that appeared in Garveys New Jamaican on August 13th 1932 references specifically Cannabis smoking. “Ganja is a dangerous weed; it has been pronounced so by responsible authorities. The smoking of it does a great deal of harm or injury to the smoker; we understand it has the same effect on the subject as opium has. Every day we hear of cases of ganja sellers, being brought before the Court.
Fines, small and heavy, have been inflicted with the object of destroying the trade, butyet it grows. The other day a man was found in possession of ninety pounds ofGanja, this was enough deadly weed to destroy a thousand men. That our people are being destroyed by the use of ganja there is absolutely no doubt.
We have come in contact with young men and middle aged men who have become a menace to society through the smoking of ganja. Sometimes they perform in such a crazy manner as to frighten us. Aren’t we playing with the danger by not more severely putting it down? Most of the people who smoke ganja do so as a means of getting themselves in such a state or condition as to forget their troubles and worries — troubles and worries brought upon them by the bad conditions that exist in the country…. It would be good that more serious steps be taken to suppress this ganja habit. Between ganja and fanatical religion, we are developing a large population of half-crazy people who may not only injure themselves but injure us. Some will do it in the name of the “Lord” and others may do it under the influence of the evil weed”.
This position brought Garvey into conflict with those who advocated and practiced the ritual, sacramental use of ganja, as well as with those who traded in it. And who were those that practiced the ritual use of Marijuana in Jamaica at that time but Rastafari? Those who traded in Cannabis on a huge “commercial”, scale at that time in Jamaica were the wealthy, merchant and some in the planter class, there is evidence that persons in the highest echelons of government, including the police force and the army were all engaged in the trafficking of Cannabis.
The historical record with a view to what was written in newspaper periodicals by Marcus Garvey concerning Rastafari is nothing short of scathing denunciations and the like. That Rastafari today hail him as their prophet is their prerogative my duty is to present the facts with that thought in mind I will present a few more. Another article in the New Jamaican (Marcus Garvey’s newspaper), written by Garvey reported the following; “There is good and there is bad in religion. Some religions are foolish, and we have a
lot of them in Jamaica. We have religion here that is running the people crazy.
In different sections of our city, and for that matter, on the island, scheming and
wicked persons are promoting all kinds of fanatical religions, and they are finding fertile fields among the unfortunate and ignorant people.” Garvey referenced the Revivalist’s in the article, the Pocamaniacs and the Rastafari. Lewis in his analyses cites Barry Chevannes which is instructive to reiterate herein; “These elements, as Chevannes and others have pointed out, were all present in early Rastafari. That was a different phase of the movement, and as such, it is necessary to distinguish among the Howellites, the old
supporters of Bedward, the revivalists who became Rasta and initiated a campaign to recognize Haile Selassie as God, and the latter-day Rastafarian movement that
gained international currency with the music of Bob Marley, Peter Tosh, and Bunny Wailer. Garvey knew the Howellites, the Bedwardites, and the anticolonial milieu,
and with these Jamaicans he dialogued. It is the latter-day Rastafarians, however, who, through reggae, have canonized Garvey and become the most active force in Jamaica for perpetuating aspects of Garvey’s philosophy.
Burning Spear was one of the earliest and still is the most persistent of the “Garveyite” Reggae-Rasta lyricists”. I have not included some of the more scathing quotes from Garveyites concerning Leonard Howell, as some of them can be deemed as slander and libel particularly his alleged “Obeah”, practices, in their defense though and this was referenced in Robert Hill’s book (Dread History), Howell did claim to be a student of Hindu occultism.
The bible was held in high esteem, anyone familiar with scripture was honored by poor blacks of the time. Garvey was no exception he was shrewd, he knew how to, collectively mobilize people for mass action. Garvey never prophesied of the coronation of Haile Sellassie, a scriptural quote is not a prophesy.
The Rastafari took Garveys scriptural quotation of psalms 68: 31; “Princes shall come out of Egypt; Ethiopia shall soon stretch out her hands unto God,” as direct prophetic fulfillment in the crowning of Haile Sellassie.
I will now deal with a very troubling development, in a certain type of literature that has been developed, but which will not remain unchallenged.
The type of literature I am alluding to is that which has been created by white writers and journalists, pandering to what they consider to be their humanist side, what it truly is; is
Arrogance and an economic niche that they have created for themselves, wherein they have been able to generate exorbitant sums of money pandering to the type of readership that they cater to.
Within this type of literature, there exists much hypocrisy, I will touch lightly on the subject, and it is with indignation that I write when I deal with their outright blatant attempt, to minimize, and diminish the accomplishments and contributions, that Marcus Garvey made to the Black man globally. I am aware of quite a few people, whose lives changed for the better after reading Garveys work; the statements made by, this white Journalist will not go unchallenged in this work. An even worse type of literature purporting to be “Christian”, is being written on Rastafari by certain mainly North American evangelical’s and charismatics, that shows the ignorance and lack of investigation that went into preparing the material. I will examine here one such writer Paula A. Price, Ph.D. her book is entitled: “The Prophet’s Dictionary: The ultimate Guide to Supernatural Wisdom”. On page 181 she purports to be writing on Rastafari, quotes from her book will reveal the absolute lack of knowledge that this writer a Ph.D. holder no less, has pertinent to Rastafari. The writer does not cite any sources when writing about a subject, presumably she believes her own hype, that she is the “ultimate”, authority on supernatural wisdom. The following are her own words quoted from page 181 414: “dreadlocks – A long shaggy hairstyle worn by followers of Prince Ras Tafari of Jamaica. He was the foundation of the Rastafarian religion founded by Marcus Garvey. The hairstyle is worn in obeisance to his belief in himself as the incarnate messiah and as such his being the lion of the tribe of Judah. The loose, flowing hair is to emulate the mane of a lion who is venerated for its power, prowess, and hunting skill. The lion as the king of the jungle is the means by which this religion celebrates their cult”. When I read this woman’s elucidation on Rastafari I was eager to include it herein as an example that the readers could themselves compare with the account given by me in this book of the coronation of Haile Sellassie his titles and their spiritual and historical context, here is a perfect example of exactly the type of writer this work opposes and exposes as fraudulent pseudo-scholars. I went to the section in her book entitled: About The Author on page 601 of her book, I will briefly quote from her book what she is about. “Paula A. Price is vastly becoming the international voice on the subject of apostolic and prophetic ministry she is widely recognized as a modern day (apostle) with a potent anointing”. Rarely have I seen such ignorance and arrogance displayed in one setting as with this pseudo-apostle. Now I will begin to deconstruct her fallacious presentation of Rastafari. Tafari as this book has shown from documented evidence was the pre-coronation familial name of the Ethiopian emperor Haile Sellassie, Ras was a title designating him as a prince or a ruler of one or more provinces. Price claims that Sellassie was a Jamaican, (her lack of respect for the subject she claims to be writing about is glaringly illuminated in her referring to Haile Sellassie an Ethiopian emperor, as a Jamaican since when did the colonial system of Jamaica ever had an emperor?), who viewed himself as messiah. Nothing could be farther from the truth, when Price claims in her book that Haile Sellassie viewed himself as a messiah, that is not only outright ignorance it is a boldfaced lie! “The lion as king of the jungle”, these are the ranting’s of a barely concealed racist mentality, couched as “Christian”, writing of the type of garbage exposed above, gives any writing that is truly Apostolic a bad name, notwithstanding the god ordained precept that no woman can attain to the “office” of an Apostle, in the Full Body Ministry of Jesus The Messiah of the Ages, exposing Price as a fraud. Price and her ilk are part of the Christian Industrial Complex forged in charismaticism, with their pseudo-Christian belief in the “Trinity”, which is a concept that this book has shown, was born in witchcraft. I have taken pains to deconstruct lies and misperceptions pertaining to Caribbean people in general in this book and Rastafari in particular, as a means of presenting as balanced and objective a picture, as I possibly could. I know it is impossible to satisfy everyone, yet still I have attempted to present as much factually verifiable data, on all the subjects handled in this book including Rastafari. If a “writer”, is not possessed of even the most fundamental respect, for his or her subject then why bother to write about it. If one must descend to lies and subterfuge, why bother? Any honest writer with the barest of dignity will do well, to afford their subject with the same dignity that they would prefer for themselves had the roles been reversed. The so called West Indies have produced many great leaders with Marcus Mosiah Garvey not being the least of them, Caribbean people have been clamoring for true independence since, they learnt what ‘nation building” truly entail The term independence in this work does not only refer to political autonomy or a semi-independent political status, as is the case regionally. The term independence here refers to the ability of a nation to perpetuate its civilization throughout millennia using the means of the political process, the educational, as well as the religious institutions, cultural and technological wealth of its people. Independence herein also encompasses national identity as well as a constitution which guarantees the rights of all citizens by law, within said constitution the rights of the citizens and the sovereignty of their nation is sacrosanct, the democratic system being the one system in said constitution that will be utilized to safeguard and protect said rights. If the reality of true independence in the Caribbean context were to be examined however briefly and minutely in this work I will like to make mention of the ideological fathers of said movement in the region.
Image: The Jamaican-born Marcus Mosiah Garvey, the protégé of the Sint Thomas native Edward Wilmot Blyden.
Through the Freedom of Information Act, the widow of Garvey Amy Jacques Garvey was able to procure formerly confidential FBI documents and also the actual transcripts of the court proceedings that led to the illegal conviction of Marcus Garvey.
Marcus Garvey was influenced by his own admission by one Edward Wilmot Blyden.
Blyden was a native of the B.V.I.A who traveled to Africa as a missionary (Timothy White erroneously claimed that Blyden was a Liberian).
Many people will try to falsify history and reduce Garvey to a narrow paradigm , exclusive to Jamaica his significance transcends geographic boundaries, he was truly a world citizen, his teaching was universal the aspects of “Garveyism” that are separatist and racist his concept of race “purity”, is rank racism and “nationalism”, I reject outright and condemn that aspect of his teaching the other aspects of Garveyism that are conducive to my wholesome development I can consume the rest I discard as unacceptable for my “consumption”.
Garvey was a product of the type of thinking being developed amongst African descendants in the West at that time.
The global universe of education produced Garvey, Blyden, George Padmore, C.L.R. James and later Malcolm X and Martin Luther King J.R.
Image: Edward Wilmot Blyden ideological father of Marcus Mosiah Garvey.
These men were not mere soapbox orators they literally shaped the world and influenced generations of the earth’s populace.
In Photo Marcus Garvey and his wife Amy Jacques Garvey.
Although men like C.L.R. James were Marxist’s they still shaped much of what is termed “Black Literature” today. For this reason I have stated apostolic people cannot honour anyone whether they are black or white simply on the basis of their status as a “pop icon”, pop culture is not limited to music. ‘Popular culture” denotes all accepted art forms that have made a significant impact in what is considered an acceptable or professional standard.
Often when one hears about Pan- Africanism, the name that usually comes to mind is Marcus Mosiah Garvey, yet Garvey was in fact a student of Edward Wilmot Blyden. Blyden was a Sint Thomas native who wanted to be a missionary; he later changed his course of thinking and dedicated himself to a lifelong struggle of African liberation. The Caribbean gave to the world many great intellectuals and thinkers I will like to mention a few here, Frantz Fanon (who was a doctor and fought himself literally to death in a war of liberation in Algeria), Cesaire, George Padmore who was advisor to Kwame Nkrumah the president of Ghana on African affairs, C.LR James, and many others. The program that the UNIA, the organization headed by Garvey is worthy of mention here, as it embodies a vision and insight far beyond its time and is even more progressive and relevant than any program enacted by any Western power on the planet today as pertains to the African in the Diaspora in their midst. Even the independent countries in the Caribbean and Africa cannot boast of the most basic application of anything even vaguely reminiscent of what Garvey’s UNIA advocated as a means of mass social uplift. Iam not mentioning this simply as a means of lauding the insight and vision of the UNIA, Iam attempting to show the relevance of such a program even for the African in the Diaspora today and how government can be used as a tool for social reformation, mass education and social uplift rather than the present dismal and apathetic state of affairs.
The aims of the Universal Negro Improvement Association were and still are:
1: To establish a universal confraternity among the race.
2: To promote the spirit of race pride and love.
3: To reclaim the fallen of the race.
4: To administer the imperialism of independent Africa.
5: To establish Universities, Colleges and Secondary Schools to further education and culture of the boys and girls of the race.
6: To conduct worldwide commercial and industrial intercourse.
There were also local Jamaican objectives, which were ipsi facto Caribbean objectives.
1: To rescue the fallen women of the island from the pit of vice and infamy.
2: To do all that is possible to help the struggling masses to a higher state of moral appreciation.
3: To help generally in the development of the country.
The points and objectives mentioned above were not exclusive to Garvey or the UNIA but were and are part of the total objective of nation building in and of itself.
Men like Garvey and C.L.R James understood that in order for them to b effective leaders of the African in the Diaspora they would have to interpret these principles from out of his experience and reality, C.L.R James however and his peers , transcended the role of simply “Black Leaders”, James never presented himself as such he was a truly universal leader and it is this type of leader who is in fact the most effective, therefore while Garvey has his place men like James must also be given their place in history, this work tries to draw the oft difficult balance between the varying types of leaders without attempting to diminish one and to falsely promote another . Some of the men mentioned above enjoyed stellar success in their chosen areas of endeavor, George Padmore is worthy of mention here, in The Pan-African Connection Tony Martin wrote: “Padmore was born in Trinidad in 1902 and attended universities in the United States from 1924-1929. During this period he enjoyed meteoric success in the Communist Party of the USA. In 1933 he broke with Moscow and with Communism but not with Marxism. From 1957-1959 he served as advisor on African affairs to President Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana. He died in the latter year. And in the words of his biographer, “It only remained for the Ghanaians to institutionalize him, which they quickly did”. Tony Martin in his “The Pan African Connection” wrote about another Caribbean man notably Frantz Fanon the Martinique born revolutionary: “but my most vivid recollection from that night was the frequency and reverence with which Carmichael quoted Fanon. The deference accorded to Fanon by this outstanding revolutionary of our time was the deference which some men pay to the quotations of Jesus Christ and others to Mao Tse Tung or Karl Marx”. Of course by mentioning Jesus Christ in the same sentence as Mao and Marx, in the same vein, as the aforementioned persons Martin cleverly attempts to reduce Jesus to a mere “leader”, which he most certainly was much more than a great leader, later in this work Jesus will be examined from a biblical perspective. Aimé Césair Fanon’s friend wrote that: “Fanon probably soared to such heights and was possessed of so wide a horizon because he was a West Indian, meaning that he started from so lowly and narrow a basis. Maybe it was necessary to be West Indian, that is to be so destitute, so depersonalized, in order to go forth with such ardour to the conquest of oneself and of plenitude; West Indian, this is to say, so mystified in the beginning as to finally be able to expose the most secret motives of mystification, and with such mastery, finally, West Indian to be capable of so forcefully escaping from impotency by action, and solitude by fraternity”. (From Césair’s Homage 1962).
I will like to elucidate on one Cyril Lionel James (1901-1989) as he was literally a giant and an internationally renowned and respected world scholar, political theorist, philosopher, literary, critic and Pan-Africanist. James was a world figure who advocated African self-government, and West Indian or Caribbean self-government. The reason for the expose on James is many fold one of the chiefest being he is not read in any major university in the Caribbean and he has been totally omitted from most historical studies in the region on Caribbean history how can one omit so crucial a man to the very development of “Caribbean History”, as a subject in cultural studies is yet a mystery. In this work he will be given his just due James was born in Trinidad his father was a schoolteacher his mother an educated woman. James worked as teacher for a time on Trinidad he completed a novel Minty Alley published in 1936 the book was about the life of the lower classes. In England he became an “enigmatic phenomena” he published several works worth mentioning here “The Case for West Indian Self-Government”, “World Revolution 1919-1936: The Rise and fall of the Comintern” (this was of course a Marxist work). He also authored “The Black Jacobins: Toussaint L’Ouverture and the San Domingo Revolution”. His play “Toussaint L’Ouverture” London premiere starred his friend Paul Robeson who was influenced by James. James completed a noted major philosophical study entitled “Notes on Dialectics”; a literary critical study of Melville, Mariners Renegades, and Castaways; and several collaborative works on world politics. In 1962 in London James published; “Beyond a Boundary: an historical study of Cricket”. James influenced greatly such writers as Vincent Harding, Manning Marable, Edward Said, Stuart Hall, Walter Rodney, and Sylvia Winter. Scholars place him among the founders of cultural studies as well as “black studies” with the overwhelming evidence of this man’s greatness in America and especially England the country of Trinidad in particular is in fact contributing to its own demise by not highlighting this giant of the twentieth century, Caribbean educational institutions are a farce until they all collectively embrace and acknowledge this man who was in fact the intellectual dynamo that gave them voice it was because of his work that they now exist how can one ignore one’s “creator”?Stokely Carmichael was a Trinidad born revolutionary who was greatly influenced by Fanon and he most definitely would have read of and was well aware of James and his many contributions it is simply a crime that education is being conducted in the Caribbean without acknowledging the very persons that made it possible for “true education” to exist in the region or are we to think that the so called independent governments are yet forwarding a colonial agenda by deliberately miseducating their countries youth. The Caribbean Pan-Africanist has influenced global Pan-Africanism to an extent not yet appreciated nor understood by the academicians in the region. Marcus Garvey one of the most prolific of these thinkers and certainly the greatest organizer amongst them popularized what many were already writing about and agitating for Garvey in fact wrote about a “West Indian Federation”and laid down the blueprint for its attainment. What Garvey and many others articulated was simply Caribbean nationalism and African Nationalism across the board. The European has created his brand of nationalism in the European Union; all of Europe is in fact governments built out of the nationalist ideal a study of European history will attest to this fact. The British Labor party was conceived out of the Fabian Society in 1893.In 1906 the party was given its present name George Bernard Shaw and Annie Besant were two of the more famous members of the Fabian society. Anyone familiar with the literary works of Annie Besant might be surprised to find out that she is one of the persons who molded what we refer to as socialism. The Europeans themselves acknowledge that socialism is in fact a child of Marxism. Have they discarded the socialist model because Karl Marx helped write the Communist Manifesto? No they simply evolved Marxian theory to reflect their present reality out of such the British Labor Party of which Tony Blair was a very prominent member was born. Why have I brought this point to the fore? The Caribbean has for years sought to create a certain amount of cohesive hegemony. The Caricom is concrete proof of such the ineffectiveness of the Caricom is as a result of there being an absence of a Caribbean identity forged in nationalism, the cricket cup is a sport it is not a nationalistic symbol although if correctly used it can become a unifying symbolic event. The tendency of the leadership in the region to form their ideology based on Eurocentric values is an Achilles heel that will continue to cripple them. Pan-Africanism in the Caribbean context can be correctly termed Pan-Caribbeanism can a cohesive ideology be developed out of Pan-Africanism beneficial to a Federated Caribbean? I think this can be achieved no true Caribbean intellectual can claim to be a “Caribbean” intellectual without having been influenced by the likes of Garvey, Fanon, Aimee Césair, Blyden and the many other thinkers to have sprung from the region.
Image: Some Caribbean islands including the lesser and Greater Antilles. Martinique, Guadeloupe and French Sint Martin were called the French Antilles, with Sint Maarten, Curacao, Aruba, Bonaire, Saba and Sint Eustatia comprising the Dutch Antilles. Frantz Fanon the Martiniquan Doctor, revolutionary, author, Marxist and Antillean. Carlos Cooks was an Antillean. Maurice Bishop though a Grenadian by parentage was born on Aruba and attended school for a period of time there. Athyli Rogers author of the “Rastafari bible”, the ‘Holy Piby, was an Anguillan, though Anguilla is not an Antillean island, Anguillans and Sint Maarteners are related by blood ties and share a common heritage. Edward Wilmot Blyden the man whose world renowned protégé Marcus Garvey, is heralded by most Pan-Africanist’s as the father of their ideology, is a virtual unknown in so called “black studies” literature. Most writers writing about the Pan-Caribbean Pan-African experience tend to focus on Jamaicans and Africans conveniently omitting the fact that the actual Pan-Caribbean, Pan-Africanist movement started in the smaller islands and not in Jamaica. The movement was begun by people like Edward Blyden and others even before him. George Padmore and C.L.R James are rarely ever written about but they are in fact intrinsic to any honest analysis of the Pan-Caribbean and Pan-Africanist movement in the world today. This book though not a Pan African nor a Pan Caribbean work, yet gives due credence to the greats in the aforementioned since, without their efforts a work such as this would indeed be lacking substance in certain areas.
There are many black Marxists and Communists some like Harry Belafonte are revered by people who call themselves Christian, how can you claim Christ and revere and honor someone who is diametrically opposed to all that you claim to stand for?
The mistake of black people identifying with anyone “popular” who looks like them is an example of a negative cultural characteristic that apostolic people must avoid.
I identify more with a Chinese or Japanese who is truly saved than with any black man or woman who is not, skin color is not the basis for my allegiance, another person’s allegiance to Jesus forms the basis of my allegiance to that person regardless of race, color, or creed.
Malcolm X’ impact transcends the so-called African American Malcolm X is revered by many Muslim youth from Morocco and throughout much of Muslim Africa, particularly in the Sudan and outside of the Muslim community. In Africa he is honored by many on the continent and throughout the Western hemisphere.
The significance of these people and their life’s work was mentioned in order to illustrate how these persons influenced and shaped the thinking of Caribbean people.
In her book The First Rasta Helen Lee claims, that Marcus Garvey was agitating for integration, how a supposedly informed individual could make such a claim, can mean only one thing, Lee who is obviously enamored with Howell; was pandering to certain sentiments and sensibilities of the type of readership that she caters to.
After his release from prison on trumped up charges Marcus Garvey was deported to Jamaica in 1928, where he resumed his activities on behalf of Africans everywhere.
He was politically active in Jamaica where he ran for a seat on the city council while he was in prison, he won by an overwhelming margin.
Lee’ attempt at diminishing the impact and influence of Marcus Garvey on the development of African civilization in the Diaspora is exposed in this work for what it is, a specious attempt at misinformation. The historical records clearly show that, Garvey was deported back to Jamaica he later left for England, where he died in 1940. By creating the false notion that Garvey never returned to Jamaica but was somehow sent to England, is a deliberate and malicious attempt, by this white journalist, claiming to identify so greatly with the Rastafari, that even within the obvious suicidal behavior of Athlyi (“Roger Athlyi” writer of the Holy Piby i.e. the Rastafari bible). Lee attempted to make Athlyi some sort of hero. Athlyi killed himself plain and simple; no amount of misplaced pandering to misdirected sensibilities can change that.
The likes of Athlyi was not and have never been a great influence on black people globally Athlyi’ marginal influence is limited to the few followers he had in his heyday, likewise Leonard Howell. Marcus Mosiah Garvey on the other hand influenced black intellectuals globally and he still does so today from politicians and preachers to university students to street hustlers Garveyism has had an enduring impact on the world that no human being can diminish nor deny.
The ideology that Garvey espoused, led to many African leaders, such as Kwame Nkrumah, and Jomo Kenyatta just to mention two very famous leaders, who openly called themselves Pan-Africanists after the ideology developed by Marcus Mosiah Garvey. The ideology called Garveyism, led to these men formulating the methods, and means that they would later utilize to bring about the independence of their respective countries. That they failed to follow in the Pan-African tradition after having achieved independence is no reflection on Garveyism at all, but rather it is a reflection on the men as human beings.
Today both the JLP and the PNP of Jamaica are vying for the right to call themselves the ideological successors of Marcus Garvey; fortunately for Garvey history will show that he was not a socialist. Garvey believed firmly in the democratic ideal, and capitalism, in fact was his preferred economic model.
Both the JLP and PNP are socialistic in their rhetoric, in practice they are decidedly autocratic, and absolutist in their governing styles bordering on oligarchies. The very fact that these parties are now vying for the right to call Marcus Garvey, the father of their political ideology, points to his universal acceptance that has in fact forced the political hierarchy in his homeland, to want to adopt him as father of their various movements.
Pan-Africanists, the Rastafari, students of the enlightened variety both white and black
have long accepted and understood the universal truths espoused by Marcus Garvey; however his separatist rhetoric, has been and rightly should be avoided by most. The applicability of his political program, as pertains to the betterment, of the condition of the African in the Diaspora, should be championed by any truly enlightened Caribbean leader.
Caribbean people, do not need journalists, or academicians to define their reality; they can define their own reality.
On the point of the church’ role in the Caribbean; Lee attempts to portray the role of women, as substituting for the lack of men in said institutions. The Jesus image, as created by Roman Catholicism is portrayed by Lee, as a psychological prop; unto which black Caribbean Christian women, project all of their pent up sexual emotions.
Lee in her attempt to describe the church services of some people, who may or may not be Christian, lumped Christianity with Pocomania/Pukumina, and other religious sects, like Obeah and Shango. In the spiritist practices above the adherents are said to become possessed by one of their many “deities”, demon spirits, who cause them to manifest a wide assortment of behavior, while persons who experience the real indwelling of the Holy Ghost are experiencing what was spoken of in Acts 2:38. Moreover the chief spirit of most of the cults mentioned, correspond to the “divine androgyne”, of ancient paganism, which has been identified as a symbol of Satan. For instance Obatala the chief deity of the Yoruba’s is a spirit manifesting both male and female characteristics , not unlike many of the other so called gods of the ancient and modern pagans examined in this book.
The Pentecostal movement is a fact worldwide; many people around the world grew up in the Pentecostal movement.
Lee erroneously claimed that speaking in tongues is akin to the “possession,” of the cults.
“Speaking in tongues” has been observed all over the globe even among Europeans and Caucasians in America and Canada, accounts of such are to be found in newspaper articles and on video footage throughout the western hemisphere.
The attempt by some white writers to portray “speaking” in tongues as a “black phenomena”, limited to the uneducated and the ignorant is an example of their use of
their mastery of the written word to portray events in favor of the worldview that they espouse. This in the case of writers like Helen Lee and Timothy White is a decidedly pro-Rastafari worldview (of the Bob Marleyite variety).
While these writers can champion whatever worldview they want to ,their attempts at lumping the very real experience of the indwelling of the Holy Ghost, in “true Christians” with demon or spirit possession akin to the possession at a Voodoo ceremony, will be challenged in this work, as it is mere fantasy and conjecture on the part of two journalist’s attempting to explain away something that is experienced by people globally regardless of color or creed on a daily basis, as a purely “black” phenomena limited to a few backward peasants and women with a limited education nothing could be farther from the truth.
Since true Christianity is diametrically opposed to occultism, those of us who truly know what the “Full Body Ministry,” stands for can appreciate the paradox in the matter.
For one the truly Christian woman would consider such thoughts sacrilegious, and the so-called white Jesus image, even in Jamaican society is not revered by all, not in the early 20th century nor today.
There has been and still are in the region churches that emphatically teach an anti-Eurocentric doctrine, there are many church institutions regionally who do not encourage the veneration of any imagery period taken from Roman Catholicism, even the pagan Christmas is not venerated nor celebrated by Apostolic people in the Caribbean nor around the globe.
The weak attempt of a white woman to define the experience of the African in the Diaspora failed, as all such attempts must fail, by dint of the fact that; the African in the Diaspora is far more complicated, and sophisticated than any one from outside said group, presuming to be able to precisely analyze an entire group of people will ever be able to fathom.
Image: Malcolm X Malcolm Little aka El -Hajj Malik El- Shabazz: (Omaha, Nebr., 19 may 1925 – New York 21 February. 1965).
M.S. Handler wrote the introduction to the autobiography of Malcolm X he described a dinner at his home with the firebrand: “The Sunday before he was to officially announce his rupture with Elijah Muhammad, Malcolm X came to my home to discuss his plans and give me some necessary documentation.
Mrs. Handler had never met Malcolm before this fateful visit. She served us coffee and cakes while Malcolm spoke in the courteous, gentle manner that was his in private.
It was obvious to me that Mrs. Handler was impressed by Malcolm. His personality filled our living room.
Malcolm’s attitude was that of a man who had reached a crossroads in his life and was making a choice under an inner compulsion.
A wistful smile illuminated his countenance from time to time-a smile that said many things. I felt uneasy because Malcolm was evidently trying to say something which his pride and dignity
, prevented him from expressing. I sensed that Malcolm was not confident he would succeed in escaping from the shadowy world which had held him in thrall. Mrs. Handler was quiet and thoughtful after Malcolm’s departure. Looking up suddenly, she said: “You know, it was like having tea with a black panther.”
The description startled me. The Black Panther is an aristocrat in the animal kingdom. He is beautiful. He is dangerous. As a man, Malcolm X had the physical bearing and the inner self- confidence of a born aristocrat. And he was potentially dangerous. No man in our time aroused fear and hatred in the white man as did Malcolm, because in him the white man sensed an implacable foe who could not be had for any price-a man unreservedly committed to the cause of liberating the black man in American society rather than integrating the black man into that society”.
Handler went on to narrate: “Malcolm’s exposition of his social ideas was clear and thoughtful, if somewhat shocking to the white initiate, but most disconcerting in our talk was Malcolm’s belief in Elijah Muhammad’s history of the origins of man, and in a genetic theory devised to prove the superiority of black over white-a theory stunning to me in its sheer absurdity”. Another little known fact about Malcolm X is that he was the son of a Caribbean, (his mother was a light skinned half caste Grenadian), mother and an African American father, Haley gave a description in chapter one of the autobiography of Malcolm X, of what it was like for Malcolm growing up in the deep south in America: “When my mother was pregnant with me, she told me later, a party of hooded Ku Klux Klan riders
galloped up to our home in Omaha, Nebraska, one night. Surrounding the house, brandishing their shotguns and rifles, they shouted for my father to come out. My mother went to the front door and opened it. Standing where they could see her pregnant condition, she told them that she was alone with her three small children, and that my father was away, preaching, in Milwaukee.
The Klansmen shouted threats and warnings at her that we had better get out of town because “the good Christian white people” were not going to stand for my father’s “spreading trouble” among the “good” Negroes of Omaha with the “back to Africa” preaching’s of Marcus Garvey.
My father, the Reverend Earl Little, was a Baptist minister, a dedicated organizer for Marcus Aurelius Garvey’s U.N.I.A. (Universal Negro Improvement Association). With the help of such disciples as my father, Garvey, from his headquarters in New York City’s Harlem, was raising the banner of black-race purity and exhorting the Negro masses to return to their ancestral African homeland-a cause which had made Garvey the most controversial black man on earth. Still shouting threats, the Klansmen finally spurred their horses and galloped around the house, shattering every window pane with their gun butts. Then they rode off into the night, their torches flaring, as suddenly as they had come. My father was enraged when he returned. He decided to wait until I was born-which would be soon-and then the family would move. I am not sure why he made this decision, for he was not a frightened Negro, as most then were, and many still are today. My father was a big, six-foot-four, very black man. He had only one eye. How he had lost the other one I have never known. He was from Reynolds, Georgia, where he had left school after the third or maybe fourth grade He believed, as did Marcus Garvey, that freedom, independence and self-respect could never be achieved by the Negro in America, and that therefore the Negro should leave America to the white man and return to his African land of origin.
Among the reasons my father had decided to risk and dedicate his life to help disseminate this philosophy among his people was that he had seen four of his six brothers die by violence, three of them killed by white men, including one by lynching. What my father could not know then was that of the remaining three, including himself, only one, my Uncle Jim, would die in bed, of natural causes. Northern white police were later to shoot my Uncle Oscar. And my father was finally himself to die by the white man’s hands. It has always been my belief that I, too, will die by violence. I have done all that I can to be Prepared”. Malcolm was a former street hustler and pimp, who converted to the teachings of Elijah Muhammad in prison. While imprisoned he discovered, the wealth of knowledge in books and began, to gather through self study an education. He would eruditely point out to Alex Haley: “I listen today to the radio, and watch television, and read the headlines about the collective white man’s fear and tension concerning China. When the white man professes ignorance about why the Chinese hate him so, my mind can’t help flashing back to what I read, there in prison, about how the blood forebears of this same white man raped China at a time when China was trusting and helpless Those original white “Christian traders” sent into China millions of pounds of opium. By 1839, so many of the Chinese were addicts that China’s desperate government destroyed twenty thousand chests of opium. The first Opium War was promptly declared by the white man. Imagine! Declaring _war_ upon someone who objects to being narcotized! The Chinese were severely beaten, with Chinese-invented gunpowder. The Treaty of Nanking made China pay the British white man for the destroyed opium; forced open China’s major ports to British trade; forced China to abandon Hong Kong; fixed China’s import tariffs so low that cheap British articles soon flooded in, maiming China’s industrial development. After a second Opium War, the Tientsin Treaties legalized the ravaging opium trade, legalized a British-French-American control of China’s customs. China tried delaying that Treaty’s ratification; Peking was looted and burned.
“Kill the foreign white devils!” was the 1901 Chinese war cry in the Boxer Rebellion. Losing again, this time the Chinese were driven from Peking’s choicest areas. The vicious, arrogant white man put up the famous signs, “Chinese and dogs not allowed”. Years later upon his finding out that Elijah Muhammad engaged in sexual relations with a number of his female secretaries some of whom were minors at the time, although he felt betrayed, he attempted to remain loyal to Elijah Muhammad, but the seeds of internal discord were already sown. Malcolm X described a 1963 rally, the last rally him and Elijah Muhammad ever appeared at together; “Mr. Muhammad made me the Nation’s first National Minister. At a late 1963 rally in Philadelphia, Mr. Muhammad, embracing me, said to that audience before us, “This is my most faithful, hard- working minister. He will follow me until he dies.” “He had never paid such a compliment to any Muslim. No praise from any other earthly person could have meant more to me. But this would be Mr. Muhammad’s and my last public appearance together”.
He related to Alex Haley his auto biographer how he tried to deal with the moral dilemma he was faced with at the time. “In my twelve years as a Muslim minister, I had always taught so strongly on the moral issues that many Muslims accused me of being “and-woman.” The very keel of my teaching, and my most
bone-deep personal belief, was that Elijah Muhammad in every aspect of his existence was a symbol of moral, mental, and spiritual reform among the American black people. For twelve years, I had taught that within the entire Nation of Islam; my own transformation was the best example I knew of Mr. Muhammad’s power to reform black men’s lives. From the time I entered prison until I married, about twelve years later, because of Mr. Muhammad’s influence upon me; I had never touched a woman. But around 1963, if anyone had noticed, I spoke less and less of religion. I taught social doctrine to Muslims, and current events, and politics. I stayed wholly off the subject of morality. And the reason for this was that my faith had been shaken in a way that I can never fully describe. For I had discovered Muslims had been betrayed by Elijah Muhammad himself”. Malcolm quoted a news paper article on the allegations against his spiritual leader at the time Elijah Muhammad: “Los Angeles, July 3 (UPI)-Elijah Muhammad, 67-year-old leader of the Black Muslim movement, today faced paternity suits from two former secretaries who charged he fathered their four children. . . . Both women are in their twenties. . . .Miss Rosary and Miss Williams charged they had intimacies with Elijah Muhammad from 1957 until this year. Miss Rosary alleged he fathered
her two children and said she was expecting a third child by him . . . the other plaintiff said he was the father of her daughter.”Deciding to confront Elijah directly about the confirmed adulterous relations he was having, Elijah Muhammad told him that: “Son, I’m not surprised,” Elijah Muhammad said. “You always have had such a goodunderstanding of prophecy, and of spiritual things. You recognize that’s what all of this is- prophecy. You have the kind of understanding that only an old man has. I’m David,” he said. “When you read about how David took another man’s wife, I’m that David. You read about Noah, who got drunk-that’s me”. You read about Lot, who went and laid up with his own daughters. I have to fulfil all of those things”.
Malcolm X had been silenced by Elijah Muhammad upon making his “chickens coming home to roost”, comments about the Kennedy assassination: “I learned next that my “silencing” was even more thorough than I had thought. I was not only forbidden to talk with the press, I was not even to teach in my own Mosque Seven. Next, an announcement was made throughout the Nation of Islam that I would be reinstated within ninety days, “_if he submits_.” This made me suspicious-for the first time. I had completely submitted. But, deliberately, Muslims were being given the impression that I had rebelled. I hadn’t hustled in the streets for years for nothing. I knew when I was being set up.
Three days later, the first word came to me that a Mosque Seven official who had been one of my most immediate assistants was telling certain Mosque Seven brothers: “If you knew what the Minister did, you’d go out and kill him yourself.” And then I knew. As any official in the Nation of Islam would instantly have known, any death-talk for me could have been approved of-if not actually initiated-by only one man”.
The Fruit of Islam an armed unit trained in martial arts and small weapons tactics. Was populated by certain leaders who were against the policies of Malcolm, when Malcolm X was murdered some evidence points to, at the very least a peripheral involvement of some members, or former members of the Nation of Islam, specifically of the Fruit of Islam.
Many people though, contend that it was the U.S. government who is responsible for the death of Malcolm X. Malcolm X hinted that the FBI and the CIA might have been behind some of the harassment that him and his family were experiencing. In the autobiography of Malcolm X written by Alex Haley, Malcolm X said: “He said he was going to state that he had been hasty to accuse the Black Muslims of bombing his home. “Things have happened since that are bigger than what they can do. I know what they can do. Things have gone beyond that.” Malcolm X was not a simple hustler turned black radical, Malcolm was a highly intelligent and articulate individual his many speeches reveal the multidimensionality of this man, his world travel opened him up to different perspectives of human relations.
Before his death Malcolm renounced his Black Muslim past and openly stated that, he believed people could marry anyone they pleased regardless of skin hue.
Many people would have Malcolm be portrayed as a demon and an ignorant racist nothing could be farther from the truth, as far as leaders go, he was a truly universal figure.
Malcolm is held in very high esteem throughout the Muslim world, Muhammad Ali was in fact one of his protégés even though he attempted to distance himself from Malcolm when it became public that he was in disagreement with the leadership in the Nation of Islam.
The famous “Chickens coming home to roost” statement made by Malcolm was according to the official information given by the Nation of Islam the reason that he was banned from public speaking “until he apologized.”
The statement pertained to the assassination of John F Kennedy; Elijah Muhammad felt that Malcolm had brought down, in his words “heat
” on the Nation of Islam as Kennedy was well loved by the American public.
Image: The photo above is of Malcolm X during his trip to the Middle East and Africa.
After his pilgrimage to Mecca, he was called El Haj El Malik El Shabazz. He reminisced in his autobiography written by Alex Haley about the events leading to his dress in the photo above, I think it bears recounting in this work as a means of establishing the, path that he was on in that period of his life. “I was overwhelmed by the splendour of the beautiful blue robe and the orange turban which His Excellency then presented to me. I bent over so that he, a short bespectacled man, could properly arrange the turban on my head. His Excellency Alhadji Isa Wali also presented me with a two-volume translation of the Holy Quran”. Alhadji Wali is in the photo, above right of photo.
Image: Malcolm X above left, in Mecca praying.
Malcolm quoted from his personal diary about his experiences in Mecca; I will give a short account here: “My excitement, sitting here, waiting to go before the Hajj Committee, is indescribable. My window faces to the sea westward. The streets are filled with the incoming pilgrims from all over the world. The prayers are to Allah and verses from the Quran are on the lips of everyone. Never have I seen such a beautiful sight, nor witnessed such a scene, nor felt such an atmosphere. Although I am excited, I feel safe and secure, thousands of miles from the totally different life that I have known. Imagine that twenty-four hours ago, I was in the fourth-floor room over the airport, surrounded by people with whom I could not communicate, feeling uncertain about the future, and very lonely, and then _one_ phone call, following Dr. Shawarbi’s instructions. I have met one of the most powerful men in the Muslim world. I will soon sleep in his bed at the Jedda Palace. I know that Iam surrounded by friends whose sincerity and religious zeal I can feel. I must pray again to thank
Allah for this blessing and I must pray again that my wife and children back in America will
always be blessed for their sacrifices, too.” In another quote from his diary Malcolm repeated what Dr Azzam whose guest he was at the Jedda hotel said about racial differences in the Muslim world: “The more we talked the more his vast reservoir of knowledge and its variety seemed unlimited.
He spoke of the racial lineage of the descendants of Muhammad the Prophet, and he showed
how they were both black and white. He also pointed out how colour, the complexities of colour, and
the problems of color which exist in the Muslim world, exist only where, and to the extent that,
that area of the Muslim world has been influenced by the West. He said that if one encountered
any differences based on attitude toward color, this directly reflected the degree of Western
influence”.Malcolm described his experiences during the hajj which I think are worth re-capturing here: “My vocabulary cannot describe the new mosque that was being built around the Ka’ba. I was thrilled to realize that it was only one of the tremendous rebuilding tasks under the direction of the young Dr. Azzam, who had just been my host. The Great Mosque of Mecca, when it is finished,will surpass the architectural beauty of India’s Taj Mahal.Carrying my sandals, I followed the _Mutawaf_. Then I saw the Ka’ba, a huge black stone house in the middle of the Great Mosque. It was being circumambulated by thousands upon thousands
of praying pilgrims, both sexes, and every size, shape, color, and race in the world. I knew the
prayer to be uttered when the pilgrim’s eyes first perceive the Ka’ba. Translated, it is “O God, You are peace, and peace derives from You. So greet us, O Lord, with peace.” Upon entering the Mosque, the pilgrim should try to kiss the Ka’ba if possible, but if the crowds prevent him getting that close, he touches it, and if the crowds prevent that, he raises his hand and cries out “Takbir!”(“God is great!”) I could not get within yards. “Takbir!”My feeling there in the House of God was a numbness. My _Mutawaf_ led me in the crowd of praying, chanting pilgrims, moving seven times around the Ka’ba. Some were bent and wizened with age; it was a sight that stamped itself on the brain. I saw incapacitated pilgrims being carried by others. Faces were enraptured in their faith. The seventh time around, I prayed two _Rak’a_,
prostrating myself, my head on the floor. The first prostration, I prayed the Quran verse “Say He is God, the one and only”; the second prostration: “Say O you who are unbelievers, I worship not that which you worship. . . .” As I prostrated, the _Mutawaf_ fended pilgrims off to keep me from being trampled. The _Mutawaf_ and I next drank water from the well of Zem Zem. Then we ran between the two hills, Safa and Marwa, where Hajar wandered over the same earth searching for water for her child Ishmael. Three separate times, after that, I visited the Great Mosque and circumambulated the Ka’ba. The next day we set out after sunrise toward Mount Arafat, thousands of us, crying in unison: “Labbayka! Labbayka!” and “Allah Akbar!” Mecca is surrounded by the crudest-looking mountains I have ever seen; they seem to be made of the slag from a blast furnace. No vegetation is on them at all. Arriving about noon, we prayed and chanted from noon until sunset, and the_asr_ (afternoon) and _Maghrib_ (sunset) special prayers were performed. Finally, we lifted our hands in prayer and thanksgiving, repeating Allah’s words: “There is no God but Allah. He has no partner. His are authority and praise. Good emanates from Him, and He has power over all things.” Standing on Mount Arafat had concluded the essential rites of being a pilgrim to Mecca. No one who missed it could consider himself a pilgrim. The _Ihram_ had ended. We cast the traditional seven stones at the devil. Some had their hair and beards cut.
I decided that I was going to let my beard remain. Days later Malcolm sent a letter to his wife and some of his assistants in New York asking them to publish the following letter in news papers: “Never have I witnessed such sincere hospitality and the overwhelming spirit of true brotherhood as is practiced by people of all colors and races here in this Ancient Holy Land, the home of Abraham, Muhammad, and all the other prophets of the Holy Scriptures. For the past week, I have been utterly speechless and spellbound by the graciousness I see displayed all around me by people _of all colors.”I have been blessed to visit the Holy City of Mecca. I have made my seven circuits around the Ka’ba, led by a young _Mutawaf_ named Muhammad. I drank water from the well of Zem Zem. Iran seven times back and forth between the hills of Mt. Al-Safa and Al-Marwah. I have prayed in the ancient city of Mina, and I have prayed on Mt. Arafat.”There were tens of thousands of pilgrims, from all over the world. They were of all colors, from blue-eyed blonds to black-skinned Africans. But we were all participating in the same ritual,displaying a spirit of unity and brotherhood that my experiences in America had led me to believe never could exist between the white and the non-white.”America needs to understand Islam, because this is the one religion that erases from its society the race problem. Throughout my travels in the Muslim world, I have met, talked to, and even eaten with people who in America would have been considered ‘white’-but the ‘white’ attitude was removed from their minds by the religion of Islam. I have never before seen _sincere_ and _true_brotherhood practiced by all colours together, irrespective of their colour.”You may be shocked by these words coming from me. But on this pilgrimage, what I have seen,and experienced, has forced me to _re-arrange_ much of my thought-patterns previously held,and to _toss aside_ some of my previous conclusions. This was not too difficult for me. Despite my firm convictions, I have been always a man who tries to face facts, and to accept the reality of life as new experience and new knowledge unfolds it. I have always kept an open mind, which is necessary to the flexibility that must go hand in hand with every form of intelligent search for truth.”During the past eleven days here in the Muslim world, I have eaten from the same plate, drunk from the same glass, and slept in the same bed (or on the same rug)-while praying to the same God-with fellow Muslims, whose eyes were the bluest of blue, whose hair was the blondest of blond, and whose skin was the whitest of white. And in the _words_ and in the _actions_ and in the _deeds_ of the ‘white’ Muslims, I felt the same sincerity that I felt among the black African Muslims of Nigeria, Sudan, and Ghana”We were _truly_ all the same (brothers)-because their belief in one God had removed the ‘white’from their _minds_, the ‘white’ from their _behavior_, and the ‘white’ from their _attitude_.I could see from this, that perhaps if white Americans could accept the Oneness of God, then perhaps, too, they could accept _in reality_ the Oneness of Man-and cease to measure, and hinder, and harm others in terms of their ‘differences’ in colour.”With racism plaguing America like an incurable cancer, the so-called ‘Christian’ white American heart should be more receptive to a proven solution to such a destructive problem. Perhaps it could be in time to save America from imminent disaster-the same destruction brought upon Germany by racism that eventually destroyed the Germans themselves.”Each hour here in the Holy Land enables me to have greater spiritual insights into what is happening in America between black and white. The American Negro never can be blamed for his racial animosities-he is only reacting to four hundred years of the conscious racism of the American whites. But as racism leads America up the suicide path, I do believe, from the experiences that I have had with them, that the whites of the younger generation, in the colleges and universities, will see the handwriting on the wall and many of them will turn to the _spiritual_path of _truth_-the _only_ way left to America to ward off the disaster that racism inevitably must lead to.Never , ever have I been so humbled and felt so unworthy. Who would believe the blessings that have been heaped upon an _American Negro_? A few nights ago, a man who would be called in America a ‘white’ man, a United Nations diplomat, an ambassador, a companion of kings, gave me _his_ hotel suite, _his_ bed. By this man, His Excellency Prince Faisal, who rules this Holy Land, was made aware of my presence here in Jedda. The very next morning, Prince Faisal’s son, in person, informed me that by the will and decree of his esteemed father, I was to be a State Guest.
“The Deputy Chief of Protocol himself took me before the Hajj Court. His Holiness Sheikh
Muhammad Harkon himself okayed my visit to Mecca. His Holiness gave me two books on Islam,with his personal seal and autograph, and he told me that he prayed that I would be a successful preacher of Islam in America. A car, a driver, and a guide, have been placed at my disposal,making it possible for me to travel about this Holy Land almost at will. The government provides air-conditioned quarters and servants in each city that I visit. Never would I have even thought of dreaming that I would ever be a recipient of such honours, honours that in America would be bestowed upon a King-not a Negro.
“All praise is due to Allah, the Lord of all the Worlds.
“El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz
Malcolm X after he returned from his tour of the Muslim and African world, he began to publicly agitate for African Americans to take their case before the United Nations: “I said that the American black man needed to recognize that he had a strong, airtight case to take the United States before the United Nations on a formal accusation of “denial of human rights”-and that if Angola and South Africa were precedent cases, then there would be no easy way that the U.S. could escape being censored on its home ground.
Malcolm X was light years ahead of his peers, in that only recently, in contemporary times associations and institutions concerned with human rights, are tentatively, beginning to draft a case, that is already before the UN Council on Human Rights, that champions the cause of the African American, as victims of the vicious human rights violations, of the United States of America , that, is as a direct result of the groundwork and awareness that Malcolm X created. Another of his diary entries reveal the following: “After a while in America, I returned abroad-and this time, I spent eighteen weeks in the Middle East and Africa.
The world leaders with whom I had private audiences this time included President Gamal Abdel Nasser, of Egypt; President Julius K. Nyerere, of Tanzania; President Nnamoi Aziki-we, of Nigeria; Osagyefo Dr. Kwame Nkrumah, of Ghana; President Sekou Toure, of Guinea; President Jomo Kenyatta, of Kenya; and Prime Minister Dr. Milton Obote, of Uganda.I also met with religious leaders-African, Arab, Asian, Muslim, and non-Muslim. And in all of these countries, I talked with Afro-Americans and whites of many professions and backgrounds”.
All of the names in the preceding adhered to a Socialist or an outright Communist political agenda at the time in question, Malcolm X being an American citizen was increasingly being viewed as a “clear and present danger to American homeland security”. On January 19, Malcolm X appeared on the Pierre Berton television show in Canada and said, in
response to a question about integration and intermarriage:
“I believe in recognizing every human being as a human being-neither white, black, brown, or red;
and when you are dealing with humanity as a family there’s no question of integration or
intermarriage. It’s just one human being marrying another human being or one human being living
around and with another human being. I may say, though, that I don’t think it should ever be put
upon a black man, I don’t think the burden to defend any position should ever be put upon the
black man, because it is the white man collectively who has shown that he is hostile toward
integration and toward intermarriage and toward these other strides toward oneness. So as a
black man and especially as a black American, any stand that I formerly took, I don’t think that I
would have to defend it because it’s still a reaction to the society, and it’s a reaction that was
produced by the society; and I think that it is the society that produced this that should be
attacked, not the reaction that develops among the people who are the victims of that negative
society.” Alex Haley wrote about the firebombing of the home where Malcolm and his family lived narrated in the following: “Malcolm X returned to New York City on Saturday, February 13th. He was asleep with his family
when at about a quarter of three the following Sunday morning, a terrifying blast awakened them.
Sister Betty would tell me later that Malcolm X, barking commands and snatching up screaming,
frightened children, got the family safely out of the back door into the yard. Someone had thrown
flaming Molotov cocktail gasoline bombs through the front picture window. It took the fire
department an hour to extinguish the flames. Half the house was destroyed. Malcolm X had no
Pregnant, distraught Sister Betty and the four little daughters went to the home of close friends.
Malcolm X steeled himself to catch a plane as scheduled that morning to speak in Detroit.
Monday night, Malcolm X spoke to an audience in the familiar Audubon Ballroom. If he had
possessed the steel nerves not to become rattled in public before, now he was: “I’ve reached the
end of my rope!” he shouted to the audience of five hundred. “I wouldn’t care for myself if they
would not harm my family!” He declared flatly, “My house was bombed by the _Muslims_!” And he
hinted at revenge. “There are hunters; there are also those who hunt the hunters!”
Tuesday, February 16th, Malcolm X telephoned me. He spoke very briefly, saying that the
complications following the bombing of his home had thrown his plans so awry that he would be
unable to visit me upstate on the weekend as he had said he would. He said he had also had to
cancel his planned trip to
Jackson, Mississippi, which he was going to try and make later. He said he had to hurry to an
appointment, and hung up. I would read later where also on that day, he told a close associate, “I
have been marked for death in the next five days. I have the names of five Black Muslims who
have been chosen to kill me. I will announce them at the meeting.” And Malcolm X told a friend
that he was going to apply to the Police Department for a permit to carry a pistol. “I don’t know
whether they will let me have one or not, as I served time in prison.” He digressed on the dangers he faced. “But, you know, I’m going to tell you something, brother-
the more I keep thinking about this thing, the things that have been happening lately, I’m not all
that sure it’s the Muslims. I know what they can do, and what they can’t, and they can’t do some
of the stuff recently going on. Now, I’m going to tell you, the more I keep thinking about what
happened to me in France, I think I’m going to quit saying it’s the Muslims. “He walked out onto
the stage, into the applause, smiling and nodding at Brother Benjamin X who passed him en
route to the anteroom.
The young lady had picked up some paperwork she had to do when Benjamin X came in,
perspiring. She patted his hand, saying, “That was good!” Through the anteroom door, just ajar,
she and Benjamin X heard the applause diminishing, then the familiar ringing greeting,
“_Asalaikum_, brothers and sisters!”
“Asalaikum salaam!” some in the audience responded.
About eight rows of seats from the front, then, a disturbance occurred. In a sudden scuffling, a
man’s voice was raised angrily, “Take your hand out of my pocket!” The entire audience was
swiveling to look. “Hold it! Hold it! Don’t get excited,” Malcolm X said crisply, “Let’s cool it,
With his own attention distracted, it is possible that he never saw the gunmen. One woman who
was seated near the front says, “The commotion back there diverted me just for an instant, then I
turned back to look at Malcolm X just in time to see at least three men in the front row stand and
take aim and start firing simultaneously. It looked like a firing squad.” Numerous persons later
said they saw two men rushing toward the stage, one with a shotgun, the other with two
revolvers. Said U.P.I, reporter Stanley Scott: “Shots rang out. Men, women and children ran for
cover. They stretched out on the floor and ducked under tables.” Radio Station WMCA reporter
Hugh Simpson said, “Then I heard this muffled sound, I saw Malcolm hit with his hands still
raised, then he fell back over the chairs behind him. Everybody was shouting. I saw one man
firing a gun from under his coat behind me as I hit it [the floor], too. He was firing like he was in
some Western, running backward toward the door and firing at the same time.”
The young lady who was in the backstage anteroom told me, “It sounded like an army had taken
over. Somehow, I knew. I wouldn’t go and look. I wanted to remember him as he was.”
Malcolm X’s hand flew to his chest as the first of sixteen shotgun pellets or revolver slugs hit him.
Then the other hand flew up. The middle finger of the left hand was bullet-shattered, and blood
gushed from his goatee. He clutched his chest. His big body suddenly fell back stiffly, knocking
over two chairs; his head struck the stage floor with a thud.
In the bedlam of shouting, screaming, running people, some ran toward the stage. Among them
Sister Betty scrambled up from where she had thrown her body over her children, who were
shrieking; she ran crying hysterically, “My husband! They’re killing my husband!” An unidentified
photographer snapped shots of Malcolm X prone on the stage floor with people bent over him
Snatching apart his bloody shirt, loosening his tie, trying to give him mouth-to-mouth artificial
respiration, first a woman, then a man. Said the woman, who identified herself only as a
registered nurse, “I don’t know how I got up on the stage, but I threw myself down on who I
thought was Malcolm-but it wasn’t. I was willing to die for the man; I would have taken the bullets
myself; then I saw Malcolm, and the firing had stopped, and I tried to give him artificial
respiration.” Then Sister Betty came through the people, herself a nurse, and people recognizing
her moved back; she fell on her knees looking down on his bare, bullet-pocked chest, sobbing,
“They killed him!”
Patrolman Thomas Hoy, 22, was stationed outside the Audubon Ballroom entrance. “I heard the
shooting and the place exploded.” He rushed inside, he saw Malcolm X lying on the stage, and
then some people chasing a man. Patrolman Hoy “grabbed the suspect.”
Louis Michaux, the owner of the Nationalist Memorial Bookstore at 125th Street and Seventh
Avenue in Harlem, said, “I was arriving late at the meeting where Malcolm X had invited me, I met
a large number of people rushing out.”
Sergeant Alvin Aronoff and Patrolman Louis Angelos happened to be cruising by in their radio car
when they heard shots. “When we got there,” said Aronoff, “the crowds were pushing out and
screaming ‘Malcolm’s been shot!’ and ‘Get ‘im, get ‘im, don’t let him go!” The two policemen
grabbed by the arms a Negro who was being kicked as he tried to escape. Firing a warning shot
into the air, the policemen pushed the man into their police car, not wanting the angry crowd to
close in, and drove him quickly to the police station.
Someone had run up to the Columbia-Presbyterian Hospital’s Vanderbilt Clinic emergency
entrance at 167th Street and grabbed a poles-and-canvas stretcher and brought it back to the
Audubon Ballroom stage. Malcolm X was put on the stretcher and an unidentified photographer
got a macabre picture of him, with his mouth open and his teeth bared, as men rushed him up to
the hospital clinic emergency entrance. A hospital spokesman said later that it was about 3:15
P.M. when Malcolm X reached a third-floor operating room. He was “either dead, or in a death-
appearing state,” said the spokesman.
A team of surgeons cut through his chest to attempt to massage the heart. The effort was
abandoned at 3:30 P.M.
Reporters who had descended upon the hospital office fired questions at the spokesman, who
kept saying brusquely, “I don’t know.” Then he took the elevator upstairs to the emergency
operating room. A small crowd of friends and Sister Betty had also pushed into the hospital office
when the hospital spokesman returned. Collecting himself, he made an announcement: “The
gentleman you know as Malcolm X is dead. He died from gunshot wounds. He was apparently
dead before he got here. He was shot in the chest several times, and once in the cheek.”
The group filed out of the hospital office. The Negro men were visibly fighting their emotions; one
kept smashing his fist into the other cupped palm. Among the women, many were openly crying.
Moments after the news flashed throughout Harlem (and throughout the entire world), a crowd
began to gather outside the Hotel Theresa where Malcolm X’sOAAU had its headquarters. They
learned over transistor radios that the man whom the two policemen had taken from the murder
scene initially identified himself as Thomas Hagan, 22 (he was later identified as Talmadge
Hayer), in whose right trousers pocket the policemen had found a .45 caliber cartridge clip
containing four unused cartridges, and then at Jewish Memorial Hospital doctors had reported
that Hayer had been shot in the left thigh, his forehead was bruised and his body was beaten. “If
we hadn’t gotten him away, they would have kicked him to death,” Sergeant Aronoff had said, and
Hayer had been taken to the Bellevue Hospital Prison Ward. By five P.M. , the crowd in front of
the Theresa Hotel had been quietly, carefully dispersed, and the Black Muslim Mosque Number 7
and its restaurant around the corner, at 116th Street and Lenox Avenue, had been ordered closed
as a precautionary measure”. At the Unity Funeral Home on the east side of Eighth Avenue between 126th and 127th Streets,
Sister Betty chose a six-foot-nine-inch bronze casket lined with egg-shell velvet. At her request,
the funeral would be delayed until the following Saturday, five days away. The funeral home’s
manager Hall announced to the press that the body would be dressed in a business suit, and it
would be put on view under a glass shield from Tuesday through Friday, then the Saturday
services would be at a Harlem church.
Soon posted on the funeral home’s directory was “El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz.” In Brooklyn,
orthodox Moslem Sheik Al-Hajh Daoud Ahmed Faisal of the Islamic Mission of America said that
the delayed funeral services violated a Moslem practice that the sun should not set twice on a
believer’s body, that the Koran prescribed burial inside twenty-four hours if possible, and Moslems
believed that when a body grows cold the soul leaves it and when the body is put into the earth it
comes alive again.In Chicago, where policemen were watching all bus depots, railways,
terminals, O’Hare Airport and highway entrances, Elijah Muhammad, under heavy guard in his
three-story mansion, said, “Malcolm died according to his preaching. He seems to have taken
weapons as his god. Therefore, we couldn’t tolerate a man like that. He preached war. We preach
peace. We are permitted to fight if we are attacked-that’s the Scripture, the Koran, and the Bible,
too. But we will never be the aggressor. I don’t have the right to be frightened, because I was
chosen by Allah. If Allah gives me up to the hands of the wicked, I am satisfied. My life is in the
hands of Allah.” The grounds outside the mansion were patrolled by both Chicago police and Fruit
of Islam bodyguards. More of both patrolled before the University of Islam high school, and the
offices of the newspaper Muhammad Speaks.
Malcolm X’s lawyer, Assemblyman Percy Sutton, said that the police now had the names of those
whom Malcolm X had said planned to kill him. All over Harlem, reporters were interviewing
people, and microphones were being put before the mouths of the man-in-the-street. At police
precinct station houses, people being questioned were leaving by side entrances. Said Assistant
Chief Inspector Joseph Coyle, in charge of Manhattan North detectives, “. . . . a well-planned
conspiracy. We’re doing a screening process of the four hundred people who were in the hall at
the time.” Fifty detectives were on the case, he said, and he had been in touch with police in other
Harlem was mostly asleep when around the Black Muslim Mosque Number 7, on the top floor of
a four-story building at 116th Street and Lenox Avenue, an explosive sound at 2:15 A.M. ripped
the night. Firemen were instantly summoned by the four policemen who had been guarding the
sidewalk entrance to the mosque. Within a few minutes flames burst through the building’s roof
and leaped thirty feet into the air. For the next seven hours firemen would pour water into the
building. On an adjacent roof they found an empty five-gallon gasoline can, a brown, gasoline-
stained shopping bag, and oily rags. Southbound IRT subway service was re-routed for a while,
also three bus lines. At the spectacular five-alarm fire’s height, a wall of the building collapsed; it
smashed two fire engines at the curb and injured five firemen, one seriously, and also a
pedestrian who had been across the street buying a newspaper. By daybreak, when the fire was
declared “under control,” the Black Muslim mosque and the Gethsemane Church of God in Christ
on the floor beneath it were gutted, and seven street-level stores, including the Black Muslim
restaurant, were “total losses.” Fire Department sources said that replacing the ruined equipment
would cost “around $50,000.” Joseph X of the Black Muslims, who once had been the immediate
assistant of Malcolm X, said that Elijah Muhammad’s followers had two alternative mosques to
meet in, one in Brooklyn and the other in Queens, Long Island. Both these mosques were under
continuous police guard.
Across the nation in San Francisco on Tuesday afternoon two policemen discovered a fire
beginning in the San Francisco Black Muslim Mosque, and quickly extinguished it. Kerosene had
been splashed on the sidewalk and door and set afire.
The body of El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz originally had been scheduled to go on public view at 2:30
P.M. Tuesday. Crowds stood in line behind police barricades waiting to be admitted and the
policemen wherever one looked included numerous patrol cars and even sharpshooters on the
roofs around the Unity Funeral Home. But the telephoned bomb-threats which had begun shortly
after noon made necessary two evacuations of the funeral home for bornb-squad searches,
which proved futile. A search was conducted even in the 43rd Street offices of the _New York
Times_ after a man telephoned complaining of an editorial about Malcolm X and said, “Your plant
will be destroyed at four o’clock.” At the funeral home in Harlem, policemen inspected all packages and floral pieces being
delivered, as well as the large handbags of women mourners. It was 6:15 P.M. when a cordon of
policemen arrived flanking Sister Betty and four close relatives and friends who entered the
funeral home in a glare of flashbulbs. “She’s a black Jacqueline Kennedy,” observed a white
reporter. “She has class, she knows what to do and when, she handles herself beautifully.”
It was 7:10 P.M. when the family party emerged and left. After ten minutes, the first of the waiting
public was admitted. Between then and an hour before midnight, two thousand people, including
scores of whites, had filed past the open coffin in which the body lay dressed in a dark business
suit, a white shirt and dark tie, with a small, oblong brass plate above it inscribed,
“El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz-May 19, 1925-Feb. 21, 1965.”
Malcolm X followers had been canvassing with growing anxiety for a Harlem church that would
accept the Saturday funeral. Officials of several churches had refused, including a spokesman for
the community’s largest church, Abyssinian Baptist, of which Congressman-Reverend Adam
Clayton Powell is the pastor; others which turned down requests, according to the _Amsterdam
News_, included the Williams C.M.E. Church and The Refuge Temple of The Church of Our Lord Jesus Christ.
Then the funeral was accepted by Bishop Alvin A. Childs for the Faith Temple,
Church of God in Christ located at 147th Street and Amsterdam Avenue. The Faith Temple, a
former movie theater which had been converted fifteen years previously, could seat a thousand in
its auditorium and another seven hundred in its basement. Bishop Childs, who in 1964 had been
elected as Harlem’s “locality mayor,” told the press that it was “as a humanitarian gesture” that he
made his church available, and of Malcolm X,he said, “. . .a militant and vocal person. I did not
agree with all of his philosophy, but this did not affect our friendship.” Shortly after the news
became known, Bishop Childs and his wife began to receive the first of a succession of bomb
threats telephoned both to the church and to their home.
Prominent Negro figures were being quoted by the various press media. The famed psychologist
Dr. Kenneth B. Clark told _Jet_ magazine, “I had a deep respect for this man. I believe that he
was sincerely groping to find a place in the fight for Civil Rights, on a level where he would be
respected and understood fully. I looked forward to his growth along those lines. It doesn’t matter
so much about his past. It is tragic that he was cut down at the point when he seemed on the
verge of achieving the position of respectability he sought.” A _New York Times_ correspondent in
a London press conference quoted the author and dramatist James Baldwin, who thought the
death of Malcolm X was “a major setback for the Negro movement.” Pointing at white reporters,
Baldwin accused, “You did it. . . whoever did it was formed in the crucible of the Western world, of
the American Republic!” European “rape” of Africa began racial problems and was therefore the
beginning of the end for Malcolm X, Baldwin said.
The bookstore owner in Harlem, Louis Michaux, a major voice in the community, told the
_Amsterdam News_, “It’s things like the murder of Malcolm X that drive the masses closer
together. He died in the same manner that Patrice Lumumba met his death in the Congo. . . . We
must unite, not fight.”
“Malcolm X caused many young Negroes to take a new vision of themselves,” said Bayard
Rustin, a main figure in organizing the March on Washington in 1963. A “third party” was
suspected of killing Malcolm X by CORE’S National Director James Farmer, who said, “Malcolm’s
murder was calculated to produce more violence and murder and vengeance killings.” A few days
later, asked for his opinion of a rumor circulating about that a “Red Chinese” plot brought about
the murder, Farmer said, “I would not say it is impossible.” The utter absurdity in Farmer’ statement that a Red Chinese plot brought about the murder of Malcolm X, reveals the deliberate, imbecility of “leaders”, of his ilk with absolutely not one shred of evidence he would publicly make such a statement, it show’s what sort of man he was, pandering to the racist , paranoid thinking, of his paymaster’s.
“For the Negroes in America, the death of Malcolm X is the most portentous event since the
deportation of Marcus Garvey in the 1920’s,” said Dr. C. Eric Lincoln, author of _The Black
Muslims in America_, who talked to the press at Brown University in Providence, R.I., where he
was a visiting professor and research fellow. “I doubt there are ‘international implications‘ in the
slaying. The answer is closer to home. The answer is in the local struggle among contending
rivals for leadership of the black masses, which are potentially the most volatile sub-group in
America.” Said Roy Wilkins, Executive Secretary of the National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People. “Master spell-binder, that he was, Malcolm X in death cast a spell more far- flung and more disturbing than any he cast in life.”
The New York City police investigators who were pursuing the case were unhappy that Malcolm’s followers had “not come forward” to aid the investigation. At police request, the press printed a telephone number, SW 5-8117, for “strictly confidential” information that anyone might offer concerning the slaying. The police had picked up and were holding Reuben Francis, described as a Malcolm X “bodyguard,” who was believed to be the person who had shot the suspected assassin Talmadge Hayer during the melee the previous Sunday at the Audubon Ballroom.
Hayer remained in the Bellevue Prison Ward, awaiting surgery.
As thousand’s continued viewing the body of the slain Malcolm X amid intermittent new bomb-
threats telephoned to the funeral home, and to the Faith Temple where his funeral was scheduled
for Saturday, a new organization, the Federation of Independent Political Action, threatened to
picket all Harlem business establishments which would not close from Thursday afternoon until
Monday morning “in tribute to Malcolm X.” The FIPA’s spokesman was Jesse Gray, the well-
known rent-strike leader; Harlem pedestrians began to behanded printed sheets reading, in part,
“If the stores refuse to close, they identify with our enemy-therefore we must close them-pass
them by. Those that shop along 125th Street during the hours that the stores are to be closed
identify with the murderous stooge that allowed the power structure to use his hands to kill
Brother Malcolm.” At a late evening FIPA rally before Louis Mi-chaux’s bookstore, Jesse Gray
declared that in 1965 a Negro should run for Mayor of New York “in the name of Malcolm,” and
speculated that such a candidate should receive 100,000 votes. Shortly after the FIPA rally,
merchants and other members of the Uptown Chamber of Commerce met and swiftly passed a
resolution urging all Harlem stores to remain open and “continue to serve their customers,” and
recommendation was made that full pay be given to any store employees who might wish to
attend Malcolm X’s funeral on Saturday morning. Then one after another, Harlem leaders sharply
criticized the FIPA proposal as “irresponsible.” Finally, nearly all of the Harlem stores kept their doors open for business. The FIPA got together about twenty pickets who patrolled for a while
before Harlem’s largest store, Blumstein’s; leading the pickets were two white men carrying signs
reading “All Stores Should Close. Honor Malcolm X.”
The weather had turned very cold. Icicles hung from the collapsed roof of the fire-ruined building that had housed Black Muslim Mosque Number 7. The _Amsterdam News_, its offices barely a block down Eighth Avenue from the funeral home where Malcolm X’s body lay, editorialized, “Steady, Eddie!” saying that orderly tributes to Malcolm X would “confound his critics, who would like nothing betterthan to see black people rioting over his remains.”
The fear of serious mass rioting set off by some unpredictable spark hung steadily in the air. An
increasing number of Harlem leaders declared that the principal reason for this was the
downtown white press media, sensationalizing whatwas going on in a calm, dignified community.
Finally the Harlem Ministers’ Interfaith Association would issue a formal accusation: “The
screaming headlines of many of our newspapers make it seem as if all of Harlem was an armed
camp, ready to explode at any moment. The vast majority of the citizens of the Harlem
community is not involved in the unfortunate acts of violence that have been grossly overplayed
by the press. Many times the slanting of the news is able to bring about an atmosphere through
which a few depraved and reckless individuals can take advantage.”
“_Malcolm X Died Broke_”-that headline in Harlem’s _Amsterdam News_ came as a shock to
many in the community. Few had reflected that Malcolm X, upon becoming a Black Muslim
minister, had signed an oath of poverty, so that for twelve years he never acquired anything in his own name.
(Somewhere I have read that Malcolm X in his Black Muslim days received about
$175 weekly to cover his living and other expenses exclusive of travel.) “He left his four daughters
and pregnant wife with no insurance of any kind, no savings, and no income,” the _Amsterdam
News_ story said (and it might have added that he never drew up a will; he had made a February
26th appointment with his lawyer-five days after his death). Within the week, two groups had
organized and were asking Harlemites for contributions to help Sister Betty raise and educate the
children (since organized as the Malcolm X Daughters’ Fund at Harlem’s Freedom National Bank, 275 West 125th Street).
In Boston, Malcolm X’s half-sister, Mrs. Ella Mae Collins, told a news conference that she would
choose the leaders of the OAAU to succeed Malcolm X. Mrs. Collins operated the Sarah A. Little School of Preparatory Arts where, she said, children were taught Arabic, Swahili, French, and Spanish.
In 1959, she, too, had broken away from Elijah Muhammad’s Black Muslims, to which
she had originally been converted by Malcolm X.
Far from Harlem, in lands where Malcolm X had traveled, the press had giventhe murder a
coverage that had highly irritated the Director of the United States Information Agency, Carl T.
Rowan, himself a Negro. In Washington, addressing the American Foreign Service Association,
Rowan said that when he first heard of the murder, he knew it would be grossly misconstrued in
some countries where people were unaware what Malcolm X represented, and he said the USIA
had worked hard to inform the African press of the facts about Malcolm X and his preachments,
but still there had been “a host of African reaction based on misinformation and
Said USIA Director Rowan, “Mind you, here was a Negro who preached segregation and race
hatred, killed by another Negro, presumably from another organization that preaches segregation
and race hatred, and neither of them representative of more than a tiny minority of the Negro
population of America” Rowan held up some foreign newspapers. “All this about an ex-convict,
ex-dope peddler who became a racial fanatic,” continued Rowan. “I can only conclude that we
Americans know less about what goes on in the minds of other peoples than we thought, or the
need to inform is even greater than we in USIA thought it to be.”
The _Daily Times_ of Lagos, in Nigeria, had said: “Like all mortals, Malcolm X was not without his
emancipation of his brethren, no one can doubt . . . Malcolm X has fought and died for what he
believed to be right. He will have a place in the palace of martyrs.” The _Ghanaian Times_, Accra,
called Malcolm X “the militant and most popular of Afro-American anti-segregationist leaders” and
it added his name to “a host of Africans and Americans” ranging from John Brown to Patrice
Lumumba “who were martyred in freedom’s cause.” Also in Accra, the _Daily Graphic_: “The
assassination of Malcolm X will go down in history as the greatest blow the American
integrationist movement has suffered since the shocking assassinations of Medgar Evers and
John F. Kennedy.”
The Pakistan Hurriyet of Karachi said: “A great Negro leader”; the _Pakistan Times_ said, “His
death is a definite setback to the Negro movement for emancipation.” The Peking, China
_People’s Daily_ said the killing happened “because Malcolm X . . . fought for the emancipation
of the 23,000,000 American Negroes.” According to correspondents’ reports, the first Algerian
headline said “the Ku Klux Klan” assassinated Malcolm X; the pro-Communist _Alger
Republican_’s editorial on the slaying accused “American Fascism,” and the _Times’_ Algerian
correspondent said Algerians showed “signs” of raising Malcolm X to martyrdom. The U.S.
Consulate in Georgetown, British Guiana, was marched on by pickets accusing “American
imperialists.” Another Peking, China paper, _Jenmin Jihpao_, said that the death showed that “in
dealing with imperialist oppressors, violence must be met with violence.” _Pravda_ in Moscow
carried only brief stories and no editorial comment, the _New York Times_ Moscow
correspondent said, and another in Poland said there was no noticeable reaction of any kind, and
that “few Poles had heard of Malcolm or were interested in the racial issue.” Reportedly, the
murder was only routinely reported with little special interest by the press in Cairo, Beirut, New
Delhi, and Saigon. In Paris and Western Europe, the story was “essentially a one-day sensation,”with the West German press handling it “as if it were in the Chicago gangster tradition.”The_New York Times_ said: ‘ The London newspapers have probably played the story harder and longer than most, giving continuing emphasis to the police work on the murder. The _LondonTimes_ and the _London Daily Telegraph_ both carried editorial comments, but neither treated Malcolm X as a major figure.” Also reported by the _New York Times_ London correspondent was that “a London group calling itself the Council of African Organizations had violently attacked the United States over the murder.
This group is made up of students and other unofficial African representatives here. A press release described Malcolm as a ‘leader in the struggle agains tAmerican imperialism, oppression and racialism.’ It said, ‘the butchers of Patrice Lumumba are the very same monsters who have murdered Malcolm X in cold blood.'”Friday morning New York City press headlines concerning Malcolm X’s slaying were devoted to the police department’s apprehension of a second slaying suspect. He was a stocky, round-faced,
twenty-six-year-old karate expert named Norman 3X Butler, allegedly a Black Muslim, and a week later, this was followed by the arrest of Thomas 15X Johnson, also allegedly a Black Muslim. Both men had been earlier indicted in the January, 1965, shooting of Benjamin Brown, a New York City Corrections Officer and a Black Muslim defector. Both men were indicted, along with Haver, for the murder of Malcolm X on March 10. With the news announcement of Butler’s arrest, and his at least tentative identification as a member of Elijah Muhammad’s organization, tension reached a new high among all who had any role in the feud.
The Black Muslim National Convention was scheduled to begin that Friday in Chicago, to last for three days. Early Friday morning in New York at the Kennedy Airport dozens of policemen spent forty minutes searching a plane belonging to Capital Airlines, which back in December 1964 had accepted a Mosque Number 7 charter flight to Chicago and return, at a fee of $5,175.54 which the mosque had subsequently paid in increments.The ghost of Malcolm X was in the coliseum. First, in a high drama for the Muslims, Elijah Muhammad’s son, Wallace Delaney Muhammad, who once had sided with Malcolm X, faced the audience and begged forgiveness for his defection. Next, two brothers of Malcolm X, Wilfred and Philbert, both of them Black Muslim ministers, urged unity with Elijah Muhammad. Said Minister
Wilfred X of the Detroit mosque, “We would be ignorant to get confused and go to arguing and
fighting among ourselves and forget who the real enemy is.” Said Minister Philbert X, of the
Lansing mosque, “Malcolm was my own blood brother, next to me. . . . I was shocked. No man
wants to see his own brother destroyed. But I knew that he was traveling on a very reckless and dangerous road. I made attempts to change his course. When he was living, I tried to keep him living; now that he is dead, there is nothing I can do.” Indicating the seated Elijah Muhammad,Minister Philbert X declared, “Where he leads me, I will follow”-and then he introduced the Black Muslim leader to make his address.Only the head of Elijah Muhammad was visible above the grim-faced Fruit of Islam men in a living wall, Cassius Clay among them. Crescents, stars, moons and suns were in gold thread embroidery on the small fez that Elijah Muhammad wore. He said in his speech: “For a long time
Malcolm stood here where I stand. In those days, Malcolm was safe, Malcolm was loved. God,
Himself, protected Malcolm. . . . For more than a year, Malcolm was given his freedom. He went everywhere-Asia, Europe, Africa, even to Mecca, trying to make enemies for me. He came back preaching that we should not hate the enemy. . . . He came here a few weeks ago to blast away his hate and mud-slinging; everything he could think of to disgrace me. . . . We didn’t want to kill Malcolm and didn’t try to kill him.They know I didn’t harm Malcolm. They know I loved him. His foolish teaching brought him to his own end. . . .”
Both physically and emotionally worked up, often Elijah Muhammad would begin coughing. “Take it easy! Take your time!” his audience pleaded with him. “He had no right to reject me!” Elijah Muhammad declared. “He was a star, who went astray! . . . They knew I didn’t harm Malcolm, but he tried to make war against me.” He said that Malcolm X would have been given “the most glorious of burials” if he had stayed with the Black Muslims and had died a natural death;”instead, we stand beside the grave of a hypocrite! . . . _Malcolm_! Who was he leading? Who was he teaching? He has no truth! We didn’t want to kill Malcolm! His foolish teaching would bring him to his own end! I am not going to let the crackpots destroy the good things Allah sent to you and me! “Elijah Muhammad drove his frail energy to speak for about an hour and a half. He challenged any would-be assassins: “If you seek to snuff out the life of Elijah Muhammad, you are inviting your own doom! The Holy Quran tells us not to pick a fight but to defend ourselves. We will fight!” It was mid-afternoon when Elijah Muhammad turned back to his seat with some three thousand Black Muslim men, women, and children shouting “Yes, _sir_! . . . So sweet! . . . All praise to Muhammad!”
PART TWO MALCOLM X’S BURIAL , HIS SUNNI MUSLIM ADVISOR , HIS EVOLUTION REVISITED. THOUGHTS AND ANECDOTES FROM THOSE WHO KNEW HIM BEST DURING HIS EULOGY. IMPORTANT TO NOTE THAT MALCOLM WHEN HE WAS MURDERED NO LONGER ADHERED TO THE RACIST DOGMA OF THE NOI.
“The public’s viewing of the body of Malcolm X was interrupted by the arrival of a party of about a dozen people whose central figure was a white-turbaned, dark-robed elderly man whose white beard fell to his chest and who carried a forked stick”.
When reporters rushed to attempt interviews, another man in the party waved them away, saying, “A silent tongue does not betray its owner.” The man was Sheik Ahmed Hassoun, a Sudanese, a Sunni Moslem cleric, who had taught in Mecca for 35 years when he had met Malcolm X there, and then had soon come to the United States to serve as Malcolm X’s spiritual adviser and to teach at the Muslim Mosque, Inc. The Sheik is the old white bearded man next to Malcolm at right of this page in photo.
Sheik Hassoun prepared the body for burial in accordance with Moslem ritual. Removing the Western clothing in which the body had been on display, Sheik Hassoun washed the body with special holy oil. Then he draped the body, in the traditional seven white linen.
shrouds called the Kafan. Only the face with its reddish moustache and goatee was left exposed. The mourners who had come with Sheik Hassoun filed to the bier and he read passages from the Koran. Then he turned to a funeral home representative: “Now the body is ready for burial.”
The New York Times reported; “The bodies of the dead remain in their graves until the Last Day, the Day of Judgment. On this day of cataclysm the heavens are rent and the mountains ground to dust, the graves open and men are called to account by Allah.
“The blessed-the god-fearing, the humble, the charitable, those who have suffered and been persecuted for Allah’s sake or fought in religious wars for Islam-are summoned to the Garden of Paradise. There, according to the teaching of Mohammed, the Prophet, they live forever by flowing streams, reclining on silken cushions, and enjoying the company of dark-eyed maidens and wives of perfect purity. The damned-the covetous, the evildoer, the follower of gods other than Allah-are sent to Eternal Fire, where they are fed boiling water and molten brass. ‘The death from which ye flee will truly overtake you,’ the Koran says. ‘Then will ye be sent back to the Knower of things secret and open, and He will tell you the truth of the things that ye did” (from the autobiography of Malcolm X: by Alex Haley).
As I have indicated previously Malcolm X is known throughout the Islamic world and revered by many. In Iran the government of Iyatollah Khomeini issued a postage stamp in 1984 bearing the likeness of Malcolm X. Talibanist John Walker Lindh an upper middle income Caucasian American claimed, that after reading the autobiography of Malcolm X, he developed a dedication to the Islamic cause. Even Al Qaeda made references to Malcolm that can be viewed by anyone with a computer and internet connection. Although to his credit Malcolm was no terrorist many fanatics Muslim and non Muslims have seized upon him in their misguided attempts at gallantry in seeking to justify their causes. Presently he is being reinterpreted by certain Islamic elements in the Caribbean to fit their needs, in their recruitment of young black uninformed males into their fold. Malcolm’s was a life of redemption and a struggle for human rights and dignity. His time in the NOI was a learning experience that molded him, into a far greater man than those amongst his former mentors’ fold who mercilessly sought his death, even succumbing to cowardly and base acts. The Malcolm X of the 21stcentury remains the man that spoke these words: “One day, may we all meet together in the light of understanding”.
Though persons with less than noble intentions are misappropriating him for nefarious ends, those who truly understand what he really stood for will continue to combat the misappropriation of his legacy by those whose desire it is to divide the human race.
John F Kennedy, the American president, to whom Malcolm was referring ,when he made his infamous,“chickens coming home to roost”, statement. Kennedy a nominal Catholic philanderer, was known for his trysts with famous actresses, like Marilyn Monroe, Jane Mansfield and even the average Jane Doe picked up randomly on the street. The abysmal morals of Kennedy are overlooked by many today who hail him as a “freedom fighter”and “one of the greatest US residents”.
Louis Farrakhan current supreme leader of the Nation of Islam. At left Elijah Muhammad, a protégé of W.D. Fard. The N.O.I. was founded on the Black Nationalist principles of Garveyism, Masonry and a quasi-Islamic ideology blended with occultism and Ufology.
The modern face of the Nation of Islam also called the Black Muslims.
Louis Farrakhan: the Trinidad born former calypsonian and violinist.
This man is the guiding force and spiritual guide of the Black Muslims today his former incendiary rhetoric has been considerably toned down.
He preaches sermons from the bible and the Koran, sadly his message is false and misleading.
He professes a belief in the divinity of, W.D. Fard. The N.O.I teach a bizarre belief in UFO’s all this can be read from, their own literature, which is quit prolific. A man called Fard is the god of the NOI.
The following is a description of Fard by Elijah Muhammad, from the autobiography of Malcolm X as told to Alex Haley: “Master Fard taught that as hell was on earth, also on earth was the devil-the white race which was bred from black Original Man six thousand years before, purposely to create a hell on earth for the next six thousand years.The black people, God’s children, were Gods themselves, Master Fard taught. And he taught that among them was one, also a human being like the others, who was the God of Gods: The Most,Most High, the Supreme Being, supreme in wisdom and power-and His proper name was Allah.Among his handful of first converts in 1931 in Detroit, Master W. D. Fard taught that every religion
says that near the Last Day, or near the End of Time, God would come, to resurrect the Lost
Sheep, to separate them from their enemies, and restore them to their own people. Master Fard taught that Prophecy referred to this Finder and Savior of the Lost Sheep as The Son of Man, or God in Person, or The Life giver, The Redeemer, or The Messiah, who would come as lightning from the East and appear in the West.
He was the One to whom the Jews referred as The Messiah, the Christians as The Christ, and
the Muslims as The Mahdi.
I would sit, galvanized, hearing what I then accepted from Mr. Muhammad’s own mouth as being the true history of our religion, the true religion for the black man. Mr. Muhammad told me that one evening he had a revelation that Master W. D. Fard represented the fulfillment of the prophecy.
“I asked Him,” said Mr. Muhammad, “‘Who are you, and what is your real name?’ And He said, ‘I am The One the world has been looking for to come for the past two thousand years.'”I said to Him again,” said Mr. Muhammad, “‘What is your _true_ name?’ And then He said, ‘My
name is Mahdi. I came to guide you into the right path.'”
Mr. Elijah Muhammad says that he sat listening with an open heart and an open mind-the way
I was sitting listening to Mr. Muhammad. And Mr. Muhammad said he never doubted any word that the “Savior” taught him. Starting to organize, Master W. D. Fard set up a class for training ministers to carry the teachings to America’s black people. In giving names to these first ministers, Master Fard named Elijah Poole “Elijah Karriem.” Next, Master W. D. Fard established in 1931 in Detroit a University of Islam. It had adult classes which taught, among other things, mathematics, to help the poor Negroes quit being duped and deceived by the “tricknology” of “the blue-eyed devil white man.” Starting a school in the rough meant that it lacked qualified teachers, but a start had to be made somewhere. Mr. Elijah Karriem removed his own children from Detroit public schools, to start a nucleus of children in the University of Islam. Mr. Muhammad told me that his older children’s lack of formal education reflected their sacrifice to form the backbone for today’s Universities of Islam in Detroit and Chicago which have better- qualified faculties. Master W. D. Fard selected Elijah Karriem to be the Supreme Minister, over all other ministers, and among all of those others sprang up a bitter jealousy. All of them had better education than Elijah Karriem, and also they were more articulate than he was. They raged, even in his presence, “Why should we bow down to someone who appears less qualified?” But Mr. Elijah Karriem was then in some way re-named “Elijah Muhammad,” who as the Supreme Minister began to receive from Master W. D. Fard for the next three and a half years private teachings, during which time he says he “heard things never revealed to others.” During this period, Mr. Elijah Muhammad and Master W. D. Fard went to Chicago and established Temple Number Two. They also established in Milwaukee the beginnings of a Temple Number Three.
In 1934, Master W. D. Fard disappeared, without a trace.
Elijah Muhammad says that attempts were made upon his life, because the other ministers’
jealousy had reached such a pitch. He says that these “hypocrites” forced him to flee to Chicago.Temple Number Two became his headquarters until the “hypocrites” pursued him there, forcing him to flee again. In Washington, D. C., he began Temple Number Four. Also while there, in the Congressional Library, he studied books which he says Master W. D. Fard had told him contained different pieces of the truth that devil white man had recorded, but which were not in books generally available to the public. Saying that he was still pursued by the “hypocrites,” Mr. Muhammad fled from city to city, never staying long in any. Whenever able, now and then, he slipped home to see his wife and his eight young children, who were fed by other poor Muslims who shared what little they had. Even Mr. Muhammad’s original Chicago followers wouldn’t know he was at home, for he says the “hypocrites” made serious efforts to kill him.
In 1942, Mr. Muhammad was arrested. He says Uncle Tom Negroes had tipped off the devil white man to his teachings, and he was charged by this devil white man with draft-dodging, although he was too old for military service. He was sentenced to five years in prison. In the Milan, Michigan,federal prison, Mr. Muhammad served three and a half years, then he was paroled. He had returned to his work in 1946, to remove the blinders from the eyes of the black man in the wilderness of North America.I can hear myself now, at the lectern in our little Muslim Temple, passionately addressing my black brothers and sisters:
“This little, gentle, sweet man! The Honorable Elijah Muhammad who is at this very hour teaching our brothers and sisters over there in Chicago! Allah’s Messenger-which makes him the most powerful black man in America! For you and me, he has sacrificed seven years on the run from filthy hypocrites, he spent another three and a half years in a prison cage! He was put there by the devil white man! That devil white man does not want the Honorable Elijah Muhammad stirring awake the sleeping giant of you and me, and all of our ignorant, brainwashed kind here in the white man’s heaven and the black man’s hell herein the wilderness of North America!
“I have sat at our Messenger’s feet, hearing the truth from his own mouth! I have pledged on my knees’ to Allah to tell the white man about his crimes and the black man the true teachings of our Honorable Elijah Muhammad. I don’t care if it costs my life . . . .”
This was my attitude. These were my uncompromising words, uttered anywhere, without
hesitation or fear. I was his most faithful servant, and I know today that I did believe in him more firmly than he believed in himself”.
In the years to come, I was going to have to face a psychological and spiritual crisis. Malcolm X once described his actual “worship” of Elijah Muhammed thus: “My adoration of Mr. Muhammad grew, in the sense of the Latin root word_adorare_. It means
much more than our “adoration” or “adore.” It means that my worship of him was so awesome
that he was the first man whom I had ever feared-not fear such as of a man with a gun, but the
fear such as one has of the power of the sun”.
The present day Nation of Islam is very different from the Nation of thirty years ago, less militant, more streamlined and highly sophisticated, with several businesses and a newspaper the Call of Islam, a very sleek well-worded website and an outwardly moral and ethical worldview seemingly founded on Islamic principles. In practice the Nation differs broadly with Islam, many Imams of the Arab world openly disagree with the teachings of the Nation.
The Nation of Islam though remains a potent force for recruitment in the Black community globally even in apostolic circles apostolic people would do well to enlighten their young as pertains to the teachings of this (cult).The following are the words of Malcolm X describing the absurd mythical teaching of the NOI, on the origins of the human race: “Hilda kept
urging me to write to Mr. Muhammad. He understood what it was to be in the white man’s prison,she said, because he, himself, had not long before gotten out of the federal prison at Milan,Michigan, where he had served five years for evading the draft.
Hilda said that The Honourable Elijah Muhammad came to Detroit to reorganize his Temple
Number One, which had become disorganized during his prison time; but he lived in Chicago,
where he was organizing and building his Temple Number Two. It was Hilda who said to me,
“Would you like to hear how the white man came to this planet Earth?”
And she told me that key lesson of Mr. Elijah Muhammad’s teachings, which I later learned was the demonology that every religion has, called “Yacub’s History.” Elijah Muhammad teaches his followers that, first, the moon separated from the earth. Then, the first humans, Original Man,were a black people. They founded the Holy City Mecca.
Among this black race were twenty-four wise scientists. One of the scientists, at odds with the
rest, created the especially strong black tribe of Shabazz, from which America’s Negroes, so-
About sixty-six hundred years ago, when seventy per cent of the people were satisfied, and thirty per cent were dissatisfied, among the dissatisfied was born a “Mr. Yacub.” He was born to create trouble, to break the peace, and to kill. His head was unusually large. When he was four years old, he began school. At the age of eighteen, Yacub had finished all of his nation’s colleges and universities. He was known as “the big-head scientist.” Among many other things, he had learned how to breed races scientifically.This big-head scientist, Mr. Yacub, began preaching in the streets of Mecca, making such hosts of converts that the authorities, increasingly concerned, finally exiled him with 59, 999 followers to the island of Patmos-described in the Bible as the island where John received the message contained in Revelations in the New Testament.
Though he was a black man, Mr. Yacub, embittered toward Allah now, decided, as revenge, to
create upon the earth a devil race-a bleached-out, white race of people.
From his studies, the big-head scientist knew that black men contained two germs, black and
brown. He knew that the brown germ stayed dormant as, being the lighter of the two germs, it
was the weaker. Mr. Yacub, to upset the law of nature, conceived the idea of employing what we today know as the recessive genes structure, to separate from each other the two germs, black and brown, and then grafting the brown germ to progressively lighter, weaker stages.
The humans resulting, he knew, would be, as they became lighter, and weaker, progressively also more susceptible to wickedness and evil. And in this way finally he would achieve the intended bleached-out white race of devils.
He knew that it would take him several total color-change stages to get from black to white. Mr.
Yacub began his work by setting up a eugenics law on the island of Patmos.
Among Mr. Yacub’s 59, 999 all-black followers, every third or so child that was born would show some trace of brown. As these became adult, only brown and brown, or black and brown, were permitted to marry. As their children were born, Mr. Yacub’s law dictated that, if a black child, the attending nurse, or midwife, should stick a needle into its brain and give the body to cremators. The mothers were told it had been an “angel baby,” which had gone to heaven, to prepare a place for her.But a brown child’s mother was told to take very good care of it.Others, assistants, were trained by Mr. Yacub to continue his objective. Mr. Yacub, when he died on the island at the age of one hundred and fifty-two, had left laws, and rules, for them to follow.According to the teachings of Mr. Elijah Muhammad, Mr. Yacub, except in his mind, never saw the bleached-out devil race that his procedures and laws and rules created.A two-hundred-year span was needed to eliminate on the island of Patmos all of the black people-until only brown people remained.
The next two hundred years were needed to create from the brown race the red race-with no
more browns left on the island.In another two hundred years, from the red race was created the yellow race.Two hundred years later-the white race had at last been created.
On the island of Patmos was nothing but these blond, pale-skinned, cold-blue-eyed devils-
savages, nude and shameless; hairy, like animals, they walked on all fours and they lived in
trees.Six hundred more years passed before this race of people returned to the mainland, among the natural black people.
Mr. Elijah Muhammad teaches his followers that within six months’ time, through telling lies that set the black men fighting among each other, this devil race had turned what had been a peaceful heaven on earth into a hell torn by quarreling and fighting.But finally the original black people recognized that their sudden troubles stemmed from this devil white race that Mr. Yacub had made. They rounded them up, put them in chains. With little aprons to cover their nakedness, this devil race was marched off across the Arabian desert to the caves of Europe.
The lambskin and the cable-tow used in Masonry today are symbolic of how the nakedness of the white man was covered when he was chained and driven across the hot sand.
Mr. Elijah Muhammad further teaches that the white devil race in Europe’s caves was savage. The animals tried to kill him.
He climbed trees outside his cave, made clubs, trying to protect his family from the wild beasts outside trying to get in.When this devil race had spent two thousand years in the caves, Allah raised up Moses to civilize them, and bring them out of the caves. It was written that this devil white race would rule the world for six thousand years.The Books of Moses are missing. That’s why it is not known that he was in the caves.
When Moses arrived, the first of these devils to accept his teachings, the first he led out, were
those we call today the Jews.
According to the teachings of this “Yacub’s History,” when the Bible says “Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness,” that serpent is symbolic of the devil white race Moses lifted up out of the caves of Europe, teaching them civilization.It was written that after Yacub’s bleached white race had ruled the world for six thousand years-down to our time-the black original race would give birth to one whose wisdom, knowledge, and power would be infinite.It was written that some of the original black people should be brought as slaves to North America-to learn to better understand, at first hand, the white devil’s true nature, in modem times.Elijah Muhammad teaches that the greatest and mightiest God who appeared on the earth was Master W. D. Fard. He came from the East to the West, appearing in North America at a time when the history and the prophecy that is written was coming to realization, as the non-white people all over the world began to rise, and as the devil white civilization, condemned by Allah, was, through its devilish nature, destroying itself. Master W. D. Fard was half black and half white. He was made in this way to enable him to be accepted by the black people in America, and to lead them, while at the same time he was enabled to move undiscovered among the white people, so that he could understand and judge the enemy of the blacks.
Master W. D. Fard, in 1931, posing as a seller of silks, met, in Detroit, Michigan, Elijah Muhammad.
Master W. D. Fard gave to Elijah Muhammad Allah’s message, and Allah’s divine guidance, to save the Lost-Found Nation of Islam, the so-called Negroes, here in”this wilderness of North America.” When my sister, Hilda, had finished telling me this “Yacub’s History,” she left. I don’t know if I was able to open my mouth and say good-bye.
I was to learn later that Elijah Muhammad’s tales, like this one of “Yacub,” infuriated the Muslims of the East. While at Mecca, I reminded them that it was their fault, since they themselves hadn’t done enough to make real Islam known in the West. Their silence left a vacuum into which any religious faker could step and mislead our people”.
As is abundantly clear from the preceding the N.O.I. clearly adhere to a belief, that they are ‘gods’, a concept in line with the belief in witchcraft circles that human beings are gods who only need to realize their god potential, “god- consciousness”.
Out of the Black Nationalist movements that developed in North America from the early nineteen thirties and onwards, even in the sixties era when the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense was considered by the U.S. government to be a serious national security threat, many movements were spawned.
The greatest movement though of a black nationalist persuasion that now governs some segments of the human population is the literature termed “Black Consciousness.”
That literature is the most referenced literature by any black so called intellectual anywhere on the planet today.
Students of every background are now being educated by the type of literature Iam alluding to Christian or Apostolic youth are also exposed to the type of literature termed black conscious; they are increasingly adapting the doctrine espoused in black consciousness literature as their own.
The themes of black self-love and a positive attitude towards black culture are in fact noble themes, when however they begin to initiate youth into African “occultism”, then what they teach becomes more than mere positive reinforcement of African values, it becomes a religious dogma, as such I find it necessary to expose that herein.
Many Christian youth do not realize the inherent danger in experimenting with occultism whether it has an African or European face.
Note that, they begin teaching your children, to be proud of their African ancestry, later your child is initiated into the occult world. From a seemingly innocent theme into a great extreme, “the occult” world, expressly forbidden in scripture. The subtlety here is inescapable to the astute, herein lays the trap of Satan for especially Christian youth since the teaching is readily available on college and university campuses, and in most libraries even on the internet.