Category Archives: Muslims

A RESEARCH PAPER ON THE JURISPRUDENCE OF JIHAD: MASĪRAH SHAHR: “UNICITY OF GOD AND FIGHTING.

A Research Paper on the Jurisprudence of Jihad: Masīrah Shahr: “Unicity of God and Fighting: The Jurisprudence of Jihād”.on August 29, 2017.By Wade A. Bailey:Social Cultural Worker, author, journalist, studied Social Case Work, Anthropology, and Psychology at the Hanze University of Applied Sciences in Groningen, Netherlands.This Paper is a part of a teaching series from foundation Soualiga Youth on Jihad. Iam a senior researcher at the foundation.

Western media, counter terrorism ‘experts’, governments and other institutions are increasingly pushing the narrative, that jihadism is mainly a criminal problem ignoring the belief and value system that jihadist’s draw their ideology from, that system is Islam, ignoring that fact has and will continue to lead to chaos. There are explicit Koranic references to jihad, and it is part and parcel of Islamic history and culture. The following is from Masīrah Shahr: 
Unicity of God and Fighting: The Jurisprudence of Jihād”: ‘  This treatise is based on the six part lecture series entitled: „Tawhīd wa‟l-Qitāl‟,delivered by Shaykh Hārith an-Nadhāri, may Allāh accept him. It is centered around the Hadīth: The Messenger of Allāh said: “I have been ordered to fight against the people until they testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allāh and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allāh…” Based upon this Hadīth, the Shaykh has derived various benefits relating to Tawhīd and Jihād. In addition, a number of the legal rulings (Ahkām2) pertaining to Jihād have been included within the Shaykh‟s lectures on this topic.


The significance of this topic cannot be overstated, especially for the Mujāhidīn. As it is Wājib (compulsory) for the Muslim today to wage Jihād, it also becomes Wājib for him to have knowledge of the Islamic rulings surrounding Jihād, and train and prepare himself to engage in Jihād. As Allāh says: And prepare against them whatever you are able… 3 Likewise, the principle in Fiqh states, „that which is required to fulfill a Wājib is itself Wājib,‟ therefore in order for the Muslim to avoid being like those who Allāh described as those who are astray 4 he must precede his actions with knowledge.
Due to the efforts of those who wish to undermine and distort the pristine teachings of Islām, the worship of Jihād and all of the issues surrounding it, have been largely obscured from the Muslims. We find that Islāmic books and lectures are filled with every issue, big and small, detailing the intricacies and finer points of every act of „Ibādah under the sun, however, the Muslim is hard pressed to find a single book or lecture giving Jihād the justice it deserves, especially in the English language. This is despite the command of Allāh: So fight, [O Muhammad], in the cause of Allāh; you are not held responsible except for yourself. And incite the believers…  Once the Prophet migrated to Madinah, he waged Jihād until he returned to Allāh, and likewise, his companions raised and carried on his blessed banner until Allāh opened for them the kingdoms and treasures of the Byzantines and the Persians. The early believers were the deepest in knowledge and closest in their connection to Allāh the Exalted, and they never left Jihād or abandoned their longing for Martyrdom in the cause of Allāh. So much so that Allāh‟s Messenger, the one who was free from sin, even ardently desired Martyrdom for himself, despite the fact that Allāh had promised to protect him from all of his enemies.


 He wished, “In the name of whom Muhammad‟s soul is in His Hand, I wish I could fight in the cause of Allāh and then be killed, and then fight and then be killed, and then fight and then be killed.”  However, with the deepest regret, we find that many of the Muslims today wishes and aspirations could not be further from those of the Prophet and his trustworthy companions.

MILITARY GRADE WEAPONS THE NORM ON THE STREETS OF THE CARIBBEAN: HOW TERRORIST’S IN THE CARIBBEAN CAN WREAK HAVOC ON CIVILIANS AND SECURITY PERSONNEL.

St Peters-Sint Maarten: Yesterday on Trinidad (August 9, 2017,) officers of the Criminal Gang and Intelligence Unit (CGIU) the Southern Division and the Canine Branch, conducted an anti-crime exercise in Couva between 5 am and noon on Wednesday.

More than 800 rounds of ammunition and nine guns were found by police in Couva yesterday.

According to reports, officers of the Criminal Gang and Intelligence Unit (CGIU, the Southern Division and the Canine Branch conducted an anti-crime exercise in Couva between 5 am and noon on Wednesday.
Acting on a tip-off, the officers searched a busy area at Todd’s Road, Milton Village, Couva, and found nine guns, including a Russian-made assault rifle, a Remington rifle outfitted with a scope, an Uzi sub-machine gun and six pistols.

They also found over 800 rounds of assorted ammunition.
Police issued a press release yesterday that stated no arrests had been made in connection with the find, which was described as a major weapons and ammunition haul.

Take note of the extended clips for the pistols and remarkably two or a double drum magazine. Some drum magazines like the Beta C-Mag has a carrying capacity of a hundred rounds, the type of assault rifle shown above and an AK-47, (standard fare on the streets in the Caribbean), can fire up to 600 rounds a minute, an AR-15 another standard weapon for sale throughout the Caribbean on the street level, can fire 25 rounds in 2.5 seconds, with a single drum magazine or a double magazine like the ones shown above a single well trained terrorist like the ones returning from Iraq and Syria to the Caribbean, can wreak havoc on civilians as well a security personnel. The pandemic of gun crime throughout the Caribbean is a facilitator for terror strikes regionally, that can be more terrifying than our worst nightmare. Security organizations regionally have not announced any regional approach to the pending threat, much less a local one. Where are the OAS, OECS, and CARICOM in the face of this 21st-century threat to regional security?

THE BEST OF THE TWO GOOD OUTCOMES: CARIBBEAN SNIPERS IN THE ISLAMIC STATE.

As anyone who reads this BLOG regularly will know I often post on terrorism, particularly as it effects the Caribbean. Presently there are Trinidadian nationals in the Al-Hol camp in Syria, which was set up by the US and the Kurdish Peshmerga, to house ISIS detainees. To date as per the CTC Sentinel, a media organ of the Military Academy at WestPoint in the US, over 50 people have been killed there, it is called a recruitment and breeding ground for the ‘New Islamic State’. There are Caribbean nationals housed there mainly from Trinidad and Guyana, to date there is absolutely no information in the corporate media concerning their plight, here is a piece that I posted in 2017, which sheds light on why Caribbean citizens travelled, to Iraq and Syria to fight and die for the Islamic State.

Photo courtesy of Islamic State: Rumiyah #12 showing an IS sniper.

The following is from Rumiyah #12 the Islamic States online magazine, this issue as with #11, mentions the paramount leader of ISIS Amirul Mumineen in the present tense, indicating that he is still alive. The following sentence is in reference to a Doctor in the Islamic State he was killed in an airstrike, his wife was killed that same day and in a subsequent sentence the leader of IS, was mentioned: “I heard the news that the amir of the Diwan of Health, Dr. ‘Abdullah, was killed after he charged towards the enemies of Allah alone in the neighborhood of Shifa. So may Allah accept him and unite him with his wife, who was killed as a result of mortar strikes on the Old City on the same day that her husband was killed – and we consider that Allah responded to the du’a of our shaykh, who would supplicate to Allah that He take both him andhis wife as shuhada together. So how great are you, O knight of the Diwan of Health, and congratulations to Amirul-Muminin for having the likes of these leaders”.

In the same area, I met up with a brother who was a sniper from the Caribbean. He overheard me communicating in English with one of the non-Arab brothers, and so he approached me, attempting to recognize the voice, and when we spoke he said, “Do you need a skilled sniper in that place?” I said to him, “Send him!” And so he sent me his brother and the stepson of his brother, Abu Dharr al-Bosni, who is a mujahid in his prime years of age – 15 years old – from Bosnia Herzegovina. We engaged in conversation with his brother, and I asked him about his path to guidance and how he arrived to the Islamic State. He replied, “I read about jihad in the Quran and contemplated its verses, such as the statement of Allah c, ‘Go forth, whether light or heavy (At-Tawbah 41), at which point I began to search for the path to jihad. When the Islamic State was announced, my brother and I raced towards it, and Allah facilitated for us the path to reach it, and to Him belong all praise and grace.” So I said to him jokingly, “We will return to the Caribbean as conquerors – with Allah’s permission – and eat from your fish, and from its coconuts and bananas.” At which he replied, “Never. I don’t want anything except Jannah.” So I smiled at him, for his words reminded me of the two good outcomes as I was thinking of the second of the two – victory.
That the Caribbean is becoming ubiquitous in Islamic State propaganda, is cause for concern since the Caribbean is the perfect staging ground, for spectacular, shock and awe tactics, that can rival 911 in their scope of devastation and terror. Given the regions porous borders, weak border patrols and the absence of a regional database that identifies terrorist’s from the region, the Caribbean is virgin territory for terrorist attacks and recruitment. Given the vast divide between the poor and wealthy citizens, the disparate levels of education, the widespread corruption of governments, and the human trafficking and illegal narcotics trade throughout the Caribbean, returning fighters who fought with IS in Iraq and Syria, will forever change the power relations regionally between the governments of the region and those seeking to challenge state power. Any narco cartel in the Caribbean and South America will kill, to get men of the type described previously to either join their ranks or to train their soldiers. The future ‘security’ scenario for the Caribbean as a whole is one of chronic insecurity.   

The Balkinization of The Middle East.

This post is more relevant than when, I first wrote it in 2014, as an article for a local publication here in Sint Maarten.John Negroponte is called one of the modern architects of the Balkinization process, in the Middle East. Negroponte is a 1980’s US Ambassador to Honduras.

Above John Negroponte stands in the middle of his bodyguards, all of them US military operatives.

Many journalists and writers have referred to  Negroponte as a ‘Death Squad Specialist’. A revealing article by Patrick Henningsen, Global Research,  November 2, 2014,  described Negroponte as Washington’s man in Latin America, who controlled the CIA backed Contra rebels. What follows is a direct quote from Henningsen: ‘Through cocaine and narcotics trafficking these paramilitary gangs were also able, to fund their conquest to destabilize and terrorize Nicaraguans. ‘So it was no surprise when Negroponte showed up as US Ambassador in Baghdad Iraq, in 2004, and Islamic death squads began appearing in Iraq featuring some of the most brutal sectarian violence to date’ end quote.
The article went even further and accused, Robert S. Ford US Ambassador to Syria, of being the instrument of the US, in facilitating the attacks of the ‘peaceful protesters’, against the Syrian regime: ‘Soon after Ford’s arrival, western-backed Flash Mobs and targeted violence against Syrian police and military erupted in parts of Syria’ end quote.
The war in Syria at present (2014) that is still ongoing), is not limited to Syria it will encompass the broader Middle East, Central Asian region extending from North Africa and the Eastern Mediterranean to the Afghanistan-Pakistan border with China. The countries previously mentioned will be engulfed in an extended war. A war on Syria could evolve towards a US-NATO led military campaign against Iran, in which Israel and Turkey would be directly involved.
John Negroponte is a name not often mentioned in the corporate media, yet he remains a highly divisive figure,. If the various media are to be believed Negroponte is a dangerous individual who should be imprisoned not running around the world organizing Death Squads. I will examine Negroponte even further here, since any reportage on Syria even of minimal depth will at some point, consist of an analysis of Negroponte in the context of the architects of the present war in Syria. As I have shown in many articles and Blog post’s previously, the war in Syria was in the pipeline since the 1990s, the present US-engineered war in Syria then is part of said agenda, and its architects are the top people in the US military and intelligence apparatus respectively.

Figure: A map showing the countries of Iraq, Iran, Turkey, and Syria the theater of the present war in Syria. The policy of the United States government’s top people, in the Middle East, is one of balkanization, through fueling sectarian violence which they then dub, ‘uprisings’, like the US-engineered ‘Arab Spring’. The Syrian sectarian war will be used by the US-led NATO States as a pretext to engineer a broader war, which will be dubbed a ‘Humanitarian Crisis’. The ultimate goal being war with Iran, with the end game being regime change in Iran, placing the world in Biblically fulfilled prophecy.
Within the context of the architects of the modern balkanization of the Middle East, another interesting figure who consistently appears on the investigative radar is Robert Stephen Ford.
This post will be continued in part III of a series of posts of the same name. Regular readers feel free to click on some ADS, by doing so you support my efforts and help me to grow the Blog. Till the next one. Bless.

Busta Rhymes’ Esoteric Symbolism and his Five Percenter Philosophy.

Above  album cover art for Busta Ryhmes’ latest record, ‘Extinction Level  2: The Wrath of God’, naturally it is replete with Five Percent Nation, symbolism , phraseology and ideology. I have written about the  philosophical underpinnings of rappers before, who adhere to teachings of The Nation of Gods and Earth’s.  The ‘Wrath of God, the albums name, is indicative of Rhymes’ , Five Percent ideology, which posits that the so called Asiatic black man is god and his proper name is Allah. The number seven is of significance since  the Five Percenter’s adhere to numerology and call this Supreme Mathematics, resultantly , since they claim to be gods, G being the seventh letter of the English alphabet is of primary significance in their arcana.

Here is what they call their flag or logo, it bears an eight pointed star, superimposed by an  Islamic crescent, the moon, the five pointed star and the number seven, above are the words In the name of Allah meaning them. They consider themselves and all black people to be Allah i.e. god. They are the poor righteous teachers, or the five percent whose duty it is to awaken, the global black population to their god hood. Killah priest who was an active member of Wutang Clan in its hey day, was a strong proponent of  Five Percenter teaching, presently he has  incorporated Hindu and Buddhist teaching and spirituality, into his ideology and album cover packaging for more info see his YouTube channel.

Above Jay Z in photo wearing a chain, with a pendant bearing the flag of the NGAE’s .
Above Rakim Allah, with the NGE’s flag on the back of his Dapper Dans made jacket, center Jay Z with the NGE flag as his chains medallion, far right RZA of Wutang Clan , with the NGE’s flag as his chains medallion.

Killah Priest in an animated pose, as Ogun the Yoruba god of War and Iron.

art in direct imitation of the poster at right of Dwight York aka Dr. Malachi Z York. As they say flattery is the best form of imitation. In another post I will go in depth on who Malachi York is and his profound influence on Hip-Hop in the 90’s till the present.Killah Priest and all of Wutang Clan are all proponents of esotericism , Kabalism and occultism in general, anyone familiar with their musical content, delivery and packaging will not be able to deny this.
Busta Rhymes, like most of the so called conscious rappers is a disciple of the NGE’s  Killah Priest and Wutang Clan in its entirety . Now I will resume my examination of Rhymes’ recent offering Extinction Level 2.

Rhymes addresses the current  global pandemic, throughout the record , stressing that he predicted 9/11, and that 9/11 was no accident . His belief that he is a god, is false according to the teaching of the Holy Bible. The NGE is a totally un-Islamic  just like their predecessor, the Nation of Islam (NOI). Islam is a monotheist religion, that stresses in the belief and worship of the one God , whom they call Allah. As per the teachings of Koranic Islam then, the doctrines and philosophiy espoused by Busta Rhymes are shirk, polytheism. I went into some depth on these matters previously in other post’s click the following links for more info, there will be future post’s on Jay Z and his mentor Jaz O and their ties to the Ansaru Allah temple, founded by none other than Dwight York aka Dr. Malachi Z York. Stay Tuned! PS Feel free to click on some ads, that allows me to generate income off the BLOG. Thanks for your support and thanks for following.

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An Historical Perspective on the Unrest in Ethiopia.

From the book Rastafari and its Shamanist Origins.

The Dirge was a committee of low ranked, officers and enlisted men that was established, to investigate the military’s demands, for higher wages etc. The troops of the Dirge confronted H.I.M. in his office in the Jubilee Palace (the same office shown previously in this book). What follows is quoted from Harold G. Marcus’ A History of Ethiopia : ‘The next day, with Addis Ababa cut off from the world and under curfew, a small group of officers went to the palace and, at 6:00 A.M ., summoned Haile Sellassie. He appeared in full uniform and, with great dignity, stood proud and erect while a nervous officer read out a proclamation of deposition. The old man declared his acceptance, if it were for the good of the people, and he was escorted outside, where an awaiting vehicle and small escort took him to Fourth Division Headquarters. Within the hour, Radio Addis Abeba reported that Ethiopia had been freed from Haile Sellassie’s oppression by a Provisional Military, Administration Council (PMAC)—the descendants of the Coordinating Committee, that had abolished parliament and suspended the constitution’.  Kapuscinski gave a vivid account as told to him by Sellassie’s manservant worthy of re-enactment here: ‘At the end of August, the military proclaimed the nationalization of all the Emperor’s Palaces. There were fifteen of them. His private enterprises met the same fate, among them the Saint George Brewery, the Addis Ababa metropolitan bus company, the mineral-water factory in Ambo. The exact sum of the Emperor’s accounts will probably never be known. The propaganda bulletins spoke of four billion dollars. At daybreak, the soldiers came for H.I.M: “His Imperial Majesty will please follow us. Where to? H.S. asked, to a safe place, explained the major. Everybody left the Palace, in the driveway stood a green Volkswagen. You cannot be serious the Emperor bridled I am supposed to go like this? However, he presently fell silent and sat down in the back seat of the car. The Volkswagen set off followed by a jeep full of armed soldiers. I want to reconstruct the socio-political and highlight some geo-political events that led to the fall, arrest, and subsequent death of Haile Sellassie I. Here I will begin from the interim of the Italian slaughter on the Ethiopians in Addis Ababa and its outlying villages (The Graziani Massacre), By 1937 it was increasingly clear that the terrorist tactics and policies of the Italian governments vis a vis Ethiopians, only worked to harden the resolve of Ethiopians against Italian occupation, delayed development and settlement projects, and raised the costs of Italian security within Ethiopia. Resultantly Italy recalled Graziani, replacing him with the Duke of Aosta, a civilian in 1942. In southern and eastern Ethiopia, Aosta implemented the well-worn strategy of divide and conquer,  favored by European colonial-imperialist powers, dividing the Christian insurgents battling Italian occupation, from the Muslim population in the area.

The enmity between the varying ethnic groups in Ethiopia was lit aflame when the Italians, reorganized their stolen territories (colonies) in east Africa, Tigray in Eritrea, Italy then placed Ogaden in Somalia, then went on to divide the rest of the country into Galla and Sidama, Hater, Shoa, and Amara. Thereby attempting to eliminate the historical and cultural links of the people. In September 1939, world war II was underway, this was a boon for the Ethiopians, changing the geopolitical reality in favour of the Ethiopians. The Ethiopian insurgents and patriots increased their attacks on Italians and their interests in Ethiopia. One famous Ethiopian freedom fighter and a masterful tactician was, Dejazmatch Abebe Aregai, who was once the police chief of Addis Ababa. On June 10, 1940, Italy declared war on the allied powers, Haile Sellassie’s continuous appeals for assistance were finally heeded, by Britain. On 12 July 1940, London acquiesced and officially declared, Ethiopia (Haile Sellassie), as an ally. Two weeks later Haile Sellassie, was in the Sudanese capital Khartoum, the Sudanese army comprising roughly 2500 men, was no match for the 250,000 Italian troops and 200 warplanes. The British began training an Ethiopian force, to invade Gojam from Sudan ultimately joining up with the Ethiopian freedom fighters inside the country. The commander of the Ethiopian fighters was, Major Charles Wingate who trained the Ethiopian forces, thereby aiding them in becoming a highly disciplined well-trained unit.

The Ethiopian fighting force consisted of Ethiopian exiles, some European mercenaries, and Sudanese soldiers, the unit was called Gideon Force.  Haile Sellassie along with his fighters and Wingate entered Gojam on 20 January 1941. Upon seeing the fighters of Gideon force, the Italians who vastly outnumbered them fled for their lives, seeking shelter in their fortresses. The victorious Ethiopian soldiers from Gideon force rendezvoused, with the remnants of the Ethiopian freedom fighters, already there, atse (Emperor) Haile Sellassie II was thunderously welcomed by the freedom fighters in Gojam. On 5 May 1941, Haile Sellassie returned triumphantly to Addis Ababa, five years after the arrival of Badoglio, restoring Ethiopia’s freedom. H.I.M immediately moved to mitigate and eventually remove British influence by, acquiring non-British advisers, ending London’s control over Ethiopia’s finances and customs, and bringing to a close the British military monopoly in Dire Dawa, Ogaden, and along the national railway line. The prescient Sellassie, being a voracious student of history, foresaw that America then ascendant would become a global superpower, therefore he strategically aligned himself with the Americans.

The American consul in Eritrea, where the Americans had seized various Italian bases as, assembly points and distribution centers for lend-lease in the Middle East, aided Sellassie in his struggle to remove British political and economic hegemony from his nation. At Washington’s behest, Ethiopia became a member state of the fledgling United Nations, re-opening its embassy in Addis Ababa in 1943, gave arms and ammunition to Ethiopia, and sent a technical and advisory team, to report back to Washington on Ethiopia’s needs. Haile Sellassie I, recreated the pre-war economy and political structure, staffing the top positions with bureaucrats.  In 1944, the corporation turned a profit of 1.2 million and 1.8 million pounds respectively, double the standard margin for the majority of businesses in Ethiopia at the time. Haile Sellassie’s huge popularity amongst black western populations was also reflected in the enthusiastic support he received amongst African Americans, this support translated to the large number of African Americans enlisting in the US Army, to fight alongside the allies, this also meant they would get an opportunity to fight against Mussolini’s forces who were seen as devils incarnate.  The US State Department chaired a meeting on 13 February 1945, between Haile Sellassie I and Franklin Delano Roosevelt in Egypt. The program that Haile Selassie I presented to Roosevelt contained Ethiopia’s foreign policy goals at the time. And are as follows Ethiopian ownership over the railway to Djibouti, free and unimpeded access to the sea, recovery of Eritrea, reparations from Italy, assistance in developing a modern army, US investments in development.

At the same time London wanted to retain Ogaden as part of Greater Somalia, the Ethiopians recognized that such a move was detrimental to their interest’s and vociferously made their objections known to the British. Meanwhile the nationalist Somalia Youth League (SYL), was agitating for uniting all Somalians in Kenya, Ethiopia, and Djibouti into one ethnic state. By 1947, most Somalian policemen, soldiers, and officials were members of the (SYL), the Ogaden was being run by the afore mentioned at the behest of the British. Ethiopia determined to regain Ogaden, used the exploratory drilling of the American Sinclair Oil Company as a pretext to regain control of Ogaden. Ethiopia granted the American personnel of the company Sinclair Oil, one-year visas to work in Ogaden. Resultantly the Jijiga (SYL), condemned the move denouncing Ethiopia as illegitimate, claiming Ethiopia had no right to rule in Ogaden. When an international commission arrived in Mogadishu (1948), ostensibly to seek advice on Somalia’s post war disposition, (SYL) activist’s claimed Sinclair, was in Somalia illegally, (SYL) members then assaulted a Sinclair drilling team. The British commanding officer responsible for the gendarmerie was powerless, to intervene since the gendarmerie consisted of SYL members.  On 17 March 1948, the Ethiopians announced that British troops would shortly be withdrawn from Jijiga. The Ethiopian government thereafter established a new administration for, Ogaden which went into effect at the end of September. Haile Sellassie then turned his attention to, restoring Eritrea as part of Ethiopia. Eritrea then was governed by a British military administration, Haile Sellassie I argued that Eritrea prior to being colonized was a part of Ethiopia.

The seminal event that led to the fall of the regime of Haile Sellassie, was the famine that killed tens of thousands, in north-eastern Ethiopia mainly in the Wollo province and Tigray. A 1973 production by ITV entitled; ‘The Unknown Famine’ later reworked and retitled The Hidden Hunger by a group of army officers, who were plotting to seize power. The film juxtaposed footage of Haile Sellassie eating at a banquet in one of his palaces, with those of starving Ethiopians, the film portrayed a disproportionate image of massive death and untold misery. Although there were many deaths from starvation, the propagandist’s inflated the numbers. The famine, high oil prices, military mutinies all were contributing factors in the destabilization of the regime of Haile Sellassie. Edmund J. Keller in his book ‘Ethiopia: Revolution, Class and the National Question’, published by African Affairs (1981): wrote the following; ‘Peasants and pastoralists living on the margins of subsistence have had to cope with such phenomena from time immemorial. As a result of the process of modernization and the centralization efforts of the state, however, the lives of poor rural inhabitants had been unalterably changed. More and more of their surplus production has either been demanded by landlords and the state or been translated into cars in order [sic] to meet tax obligations. Conservatives and Liberal Reforms, 1960–1974 113 their freedom of movement and their access to land was also now inhibited by state regulation or by a complex and aggressive burgeoning market economy. Traditional survival mechanisms were either gravely weakened or completely inoperable. Rural people unwittingly had become extremely dependent on the state. For its part, the state was more concerned with economic growth and political survival than it was with meeting its inherited social responsibilities’.

The preceding ably gives the reader an understanding of some of the actual causes, why the peasants who were in the majority in Ethiopia and lived mainly in rural areas, were mobilized by those opposed to Haile Sellassie, to rise up against the government. The regions of Wolle and Tigray which supplied 40 percent of Ethiopia’s total food production at the time, were estimated to have lost about 20 percent of their human populations and 90 percent of their animals. Students and various citizen groups began food distribution campaigns. In 1973, students at the Haile Sellassie I University began a series of student protests on campus, that led to the arrests and subsequent deaths of some students. The protests were sparked by the famine in northern Ethiopia and in the low-lying areas (lowlands), of Harerge, Bale, Sidamo, and Gamo Gofa. In 1973, the peasants unable to sustain themselves, sold off their grain to purchase food, with some eating seed grain. Starving, many of them made their way to the towns, hoping to receive government aid. The provincial administrators underreported the true proportions of the crisis, in Addis Ababa officials at the outset denied the existence of the famine, not even bothering to report the existence of the crisis to Haile Selassie I. Intellectuals and students criticized the regime. The government promptly reacted, by banning all news of the famine, the official government stance was denial, till May 1973. The government was forced to admit the existence of the famine, when an ad hoc committee of professors from the Haile Sellassie I University professors traveled to Welo in 1973, returning with photos backed by a devastating report describing the horrendous reality of the residents, who were dying of starvation.  

In response to the criticism, the government established an emergency committee, which tried maintaining the crisis by internal resource mobilization. The Ethiopian government relief efforts were thwarted by a multiplicity of causes some of which were, nepotism, corruption, profiteering, the refusal of local and provincial governments to waive taxes and the inability to divert grain exports to relief agencies. International reporting painting an accurate picture of the debilitating famine in Ethiopia, the agonizing images of starving, dying babies with distended stomachs, flies on their bodies with their parents lying next to them, shocked the world. Those horrific images spurred a relief effort led by wealthy western nations’ governments, the effort eventually included relief organizations, NGOs, churches, students, universities, and academics mainly in the western hemisphere. In 1974 two related economic crises wreaked havoc on the global economy, particularly in developing countries, Ethiopia was amongst the worst hit, the primary crisis stemmed from the high cost of petroleum products caused by the closure of the Suez Canal, secondly, the high cost of finished goods and food, which rose by 20 and 80 percent respectively. Due to the massive unrest caused by students stoning vehicles in the streets and other riotous behavior, the military was authorized to quell the rebellion.

On February 23, Haile Sellassie toured the marketplace in Addis Ababa, speaking with people urging them to remain calm, meeting with the common people and vendors, in this manner Sellassie was able to diffuse the growing tension. He appeared on Ethiopian television that evening again urging calm, he announced that the military would, deal severely with cases of civil disturbance. On Monday 25 1974, Addis Ababa, experienced a scene of calm, which only presaged the coming storm of military unrest, that led to the overthrew of the Haile Sellassie I monarchial government. The Ethiopian Herald carried this brief message on August 28, 1975: ‘Yesterday Haile Sellassie I, the former Emperor of Ethiopia, died. The cause of death was circulatory failure’. The continued existence of Ethiopia as a unified nation-state is threatened, by the intra-ethnic and ethnic, strife that has characterized Ethiopia for thousands of years. Where will the Rastafari of the west, fit into the Ethiopia of the future? Even in Haile Sellassie’s Ethiopia ethnic strife was commonplace, as I have shown in this work, the pro-Amhara Sellassie regime killed other ethnic groups, like Ethiopian regimes past and present. Can Ethiopia transcend its, self-destructive ethnic divide? The future prognosis on Ethiopian ethnic unity is dismal indeed. Ethiopia’s political history is replete with examples, of ethnically motivated dissent.  At the center of the dissent in Ethiopia, the Oromo are often, the most severely affected group. The recent murder of Hachalu Hundesa 34, an Oromo musician known for his anti-government pro-Oromo music, and his support for the Oromia liberation movement. Hachalu was shot on Monday 29, June 2020, in an Addis Ababa suburb, he succumbed in a hospital, later of gunshot wounds. Later that same day, in Adama a town situated in the Oromia region, several people were killed during protests. The Ethiopian government has repeatedly denied, allegations by, local human rights groups and international organizations of torture, mass incarcerations, and extra-judicial killings.

In 1991, the Marxist government of Mengistu Haile Mariam was defeated by the Tigrean Peoples Liberation Front (TPLF), the succeeding political framework was and still is that of a, a federation of nine ethnically diverse states. Meles Zenawi the leader of the TPLF, became the President of Ethiopia, the now-deceased Zenawi (2012), was succeeded by Haile Mariam Desalegn, after 21 years as leader. Opposition figures accused Zenawi of being an authoritarian leader, Zenawi’s TPLF, became Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF). Ethiopia’s governance system is fraught with many challenges, foremost of them being its pseudo-democratic system, which often sees one party and its allies winning all the 547 parliamentary seats, not because of any overwhelming support, since the varying ethnic groups in Ethiopia would never all support one party. The mere fact that anyone party would win all 547 seats in ethnically diverse Ethiopia, points to the endemic corruption at the state level in Ethiopia. The EPRDF also controls the state security apparatus, the police, military, and all intelligence-gathering units, all are staffed and dominated by Tigrayans. The government’s bogus anti-terrorism laws are another tool used as a pretext to arrest anyone opposed to the regime, such as bloggers, journalists, opposition figures, human rights groups, and environmental activists.

 A report published in 2009, by AHR, Advocates for Human Rights, documented systemic abuse, by three successive Ethiopian governments against the Oromo, those governments are the following, the Haile Sellassie regime, the Marxist government led by Haile Mengistu, and the present EPRDF government first led by the now-deceased Meles Zenawi (Tigrayan), then led by his chosen successor Haile Desalegn, and now led by Abiy Ahmed. The report by the AHR comprising 166 pages, documented that between 2011 and 2014 at least 5000 ‘based on their actual or suspected peaceful opposition to the government’. Dissenters both actual and suspected had been ‘detained without charge or trial and killed by security services during protests, arrests and in detention’. In the Ogaden the situation is even more deplorable, comprising mainly ethnic Somalis the Ogaden, is an underdeveloped expanse of land containing rich oil and gas deposits, those living there have consistently accused the Ethiopian government of systemic abuses such as forced displacements from ancestral lands, forced removal of large groups to camps, starvations and massacres of civilians, the persons in the camps dependent on the Ethiopian government for food and water, are routinely starved with some dying from food and water deprivation. Rape and intimidation are routinely used by security forces as means of keeping, civilians in line, whose land was taken away by the Ethiopian government and given to Chinese consortiums who own gas and oil projects in the region. The Anuak in the Gambella (a resource-rich region in the west of Ethiopia bordering Sudan), also accused the Ethiopian government of crimes against them such as forced removal from their lands and massacres by the highlanders. The people assert that they do not benefit from, the oil and agricultural projects the government has leased to foreign interests. The Anuak a dark-hued African people, who have been treated as inferiors by the dominant Tigrayan and Amhara groups, since ancient times are discriminated against based on their ethnicity. The convulsive ethnic strife’s, which cause enormous societal rifts and eruptions, threatens the very existence of Ethiopia as a heterogeneous nation-state, as the Ethiopian historical and contemporaneous accounts have shown, throughout this work,   if state actors in Ethiopia, do not cease from ruling from an approach of repression, nepotism, genocidal policies, and ethnic favoritism, it is only a matter of time before what occurred in Rwanda repeats itself in Ethiopia.  The total dehumanization and wanton killing of the African that was justifiable by law in the above countries mentioned was unparalleled in their scope and their ability to allow mass mayhem to be perpetrated on the Africans who were in many cases utterly defenceless in the face of their own extinction. The task then of any honest scholar claiming to be a scholar of conscience or merit must of necessity be to construct a historical narrative that leads to a reconciliatory spirit between the past and present generations of Africans in continental Africa and their descendants.

The Armenian Massacre 2. The Continuation.

The outbreak of fighting in Nagorno Karabakh between the Armenians and Azerbaijani’s, are embers of an age-old conflict between the Armenians who are traditionally ‘Christian’, and the Azerbaijani’s who are traditionally adhere to the Islamic creed i.e. Muslims. The massacre and deportation of Turkey’s Armenian population took place against a background of fighting between Turkish and Russian forces, on the Caucasus front. It was described by some scholars, as the first genocide of the 20th century.

This post will focus on the events and socio-political, socio-cultural religious and ethnic differences that shaped, the Armenian and Azerbaijani conflict, making both ethnic groups the arch enemies that they are today.

Russia and Ottoman Turkey were multinational empires. Where their borders met in the Caucasus Armenians lived on both sides.

Armenian Nationalism: The Christian Armenians and their Turkish Muslim rulers in Turkey, had a history of conflict stretching back centuries. In the 1890’s Armenian nationalist agitation, served as a pretext for the Turks to slaughter thousands of Armenians. In August 1914, the Turkish government asked Armenian envoys gathered at Erzurum in eastern Turkey, to incite rebellion against Russian hegemony in the Caucasus. The Armenian refused, when Turkey entered World War I, the Caucasus and western Anatolia were turned into war zones. During Turkey’s ill-fated offensive in the winter of 1915, Armenians fought as conscripts in the Turkish and the Russian army. The Russian army also contained Armenians fighting, for liberation from Turkish rule.  Russia encouraged an Armenian revolt against Turkey, likewise the Turks incentivized and fomented an uprising by Turkic peoples and Muslim Kurds living in Russia. The Turkish army was roundly defeated at the Caucasus front at Sarikamish between December 1914 and January 1915.

Ethnic Tensions: The situation in eastern Anatolia was unstable, ethnic tensions were acute. The majority of the population consisted of Muslims, who were displaced from the Russian ruled Caucasus in the 19th century and bitterly resented, the Christian pro-Russian Armenians.

  1. This post will be continued, the continuation will highlight the Armenian Genocide.
  2. It will highlight the history of Azerbaijan and Armenia.
  3. It will highlight the 1990’s situation in Nagorno Karabakh and will touch on the current situation in Nagorno Karabakh.      

This is the continuation of the post: The Armenian Massacre.

Mass Deportations: On 24 April as the allies were beginning their landings at Gallipoli, the Interior Minister of Turkey Talaat Pasha, ordered the arrest of about 250 members of the Armenian urban elite, living in Constantinople. Turkey viewed the Armenians as an enemy within. More mass arrest’s followed with hundreds more prominent Armenians being detained. The Techir, deportation law authorized Turkish authorities, to engage in the arrest and mass deportation, of Armenians from Anatolia. During the mass deportations more than 600,000 Armenians died, the deportations were executed in a brutal and callused manner, resulting in a massive Armenian death toll. It should be noted that the Turks were and still are Muslims, and Armenians then and now are Christian. The typical clearance of an Armenian village by the Turkish military, began with the brutal slaughter of the male population, the deportees were force marched on the roads to Iraq and Syria. The deportees on the roads usually consisted of mainly of women young and old, as well as children. The deportees were not given an opportunity, to prepare most went on the forced marches, with the clothes on their backs and no food and water. Underway the defenceless Armenians were attacked by their primary nemesis the Kurds. Many Armenians from dehydration. For those who managed to reach the dismal camps in Syria and Iraq, their fate was even worse, they often died a slow and painful death, from starvation, disease, and the extremely harsh circumstances they were living in.

By 1916, the Russians under the command of General Nikolai Yudenich went on the offensive, in Anatolia (Turkey), capturing the fortress town of Erzurum and the port of Trabzon in February of 1916, by then the area’s Armenian population had been annihilated.

The war today being fought by Armenia and Azerbaijan is as a direct result of the many unrequited atrocities, perpetrated by both groups throughout, the years one against the other.

The Armenian Massacre.

The outbreak of fighting in Nagorno Karabakh between the Armenians and Azerbaijani’s, are embers of an age-old conflict between the Armenians who are traditionally ‘Christian’, and the Azerbaijani’s who are traditionally adhere to the Islamic creed i.e. Muslims. The massacre and deportation of Turkey’s Armenian population took place against a background of fighting between Turkish and Russian forces, on the Caucasus front. It was described by some scholars, as the first genocide of the 20th century.

This post will focus on the events and socio-political, socio-cultural religious and ethnic differences that shaped, the Armenian and Azerbaijani conflict, making both ethnic groups the arch enemies that they are today.

Russia and Ottoman Turkey were multinational empires. Where their borders met in the Caucasus Armenians lived on both sides.

Armenian Nationalism: The Christian Armenians and their Turkish Muslim rulers in Turkey, had a history of conflict stretching back centuries. In the 1890’s Armenian nationalist agitation, served as a pretext for the Turks to slaughter thousands of Armenians. In August 1914, the Turkish government asked Armenian envoys gathered at Erzurum in eastern Turkey, to incite rebellion against Russian hegemony in the Caucasus. The Armenian refused, when Turkey entered World War I, the Caucasus and western Anatolia were turned into war zones. During Turkey’s ill-fated offensive in the winter of 1915, Armenians fought as conscripts in the Turkish and the Russian army. The Russian army also contained Armenians fighting, for liberation from Turkish rule.  Russia encouraged an Armenian revolt against Turkey, likewise the Turks incentivized and fomented an uprising by Turkic peoples and Muslim Kurds living in Russia. The Turkish army was roundly defeated at the Caucasus front at Sarikamish between December 1914 and January 1915.

Ethnic Tensions: The situation in eastern Anatolia was unstable, ethnic tensions were acute. The majority of the population consisted of Muslims, who were displaced from the Russian ruled Caucasus in the 19th century and bitterly resented, the Christian pro-Russian Armenians.

  1. This post will be continued, the continuation will highlight the Armenian Genocide.
  2. It will highlight the history of Azerbaijan and Armenia.
  3. It will highlight the 1990’s situation in Nagorno Karabakh and will touch on the current situation in Nagorno Karabakh.