Category Archives: Leadership

Sayid Qutb: Father of Takfiri Jihadism.

For all its austerity and fundamentalism Saudi Arabia did not give birth to the ideology of modern Islamism, rather its modern origins are to be found in Egypt, within the Muslim Brotherhood whose most able son Sayid Qutb, would transcend his teachers and conceive the ideology that gave birth to al-Qaeda.

Today the Muslim Brotherhood is denounced as an apostate organization by ISIS and other hardline Islamist movements, yet a careful study of Islamist history, will prove that their ideological father is the Muslim Brotherhood. Lawrence Wright in his book; ―The Looming Tower: Al-Qaeda And The Road To 911, gave a comprehensive view into Qutb‘s influences, his American sojourn, his imprisonment, torture and eventual execution at the hands of the Egyptian authorities at the time. Wright described Qutb and the Egyptian reality at the time in the following: ―Like many of his compatriots he was radicalized by the British occupation and was contemptuous of the jaded king Farouk‘s complicity. Egypt was racked by anti-British protests and seditous political factions bent on running the forign troops out of the country-and perhaps the king as well. What made this unimposing midlevel government clerk particularly dangerous was his blunt and potent commentary. He was western in so many ways –his dress, his love of classical music and Hollywood movies. He had read, in translation, the works of Darwin and Einstein, Byron and Shelley, and had immersed himself in French literature, especially Victor Hugo. Qutb like many Arabs, felt shocked and betrayed by the support that the US government had given to the Zionist cause after the war. Qutb wrote: I hate those westerners and despise them . All of them without any exception: the English, the French, the Dutch, and finally the Americans, who have been trusted by many.

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Luke Lobada a recipient of the 2004 Charles E. Parton award, wrote in an Ashbrook Statesmanship Thesis the following concerning Qutb, I think it would be highly constructive to include the portion on Qutb‘s, earlier background and his academic standing and achivements at that time.

―Sayyid Qutb was born in 1906 in the province of Asyut, which is located in southern Egypt. His parents were both deeply religious people who were wellknown in the area. From his years as a young child until the age of 27, he experienced a rigorous education. Qutb‘s evident desire for knowledge continued throughout his life. He began his elementary education in a religious school located in his hometown village. By the age of 10, he had already committed the entire text of the Qur‘an to memory. After transferring to a more modern government-sponsored school, Qutb graduated primary school in 1918. Due to his interests in education and teaching, Qutb enrolled into a teacher‘s college and graduated in 1928. Next, he was admitted into Dar al-Ulum, a Western-style university which was also attended by Hasan al-Banna, an Aab-Islamic leader who Qutb would later join in the Muslim Brotherhood. After his graduation from Dar al- Ulum in 1933, Qutb began his teaching career and eventually became involved in Egypt‘s Ministry of Education. The Ministry sent rhim abroad to the United States to research Western methods of teaching. He spent a total of two years in the United States from 1948 to 1950. During that time, Qutb studied at Wilson‘s Teachers‘College on the east coast before moving west and earning a M.A. in education at the University of Northern Colorado. Qutb‘s strong conviction that Islam was superior to all other systems was made clear in his work Social Justice in Islam, which was written prior to his trip. Nevertheless, many scholars believe that it was during his trip to the United States that Qutb became convinced of the West‘s spiritual and moral bankruptcy.

Qutb left America and returned to Cairo on a TWA flight, the date was August 20, 1950. While Qutb‘s beloved Egypt wallowed in record levels of corruption, assassination, poverty, illiteracy and disease, the Turkish holdout from the Ottoman empire king Farouk , Egypt‘s Britain backed king jetted around in private jet‘s, drove around Cairo in one of many of his cars, or went gambling on the Rivera. This was Qutb‘s Egypt. When Gamal Abdul Nasser then a young army colonel, seized power in Egypt, the old Ottoman tyrant fell replaced by an Egyptian one, Qutb would prove to be his staunchest enemy and would usher in the ―New Vangaurd. The army officers who were principals in the successful takeover of the government, closely coordinated with the Muslim Brotherhood, several of the officers even Anwar Saddat, Nasser‘s successor, were closely allied to the Muslim Brotherhood. Qutb returned to his job at the Ministry of Education, returning to his home in the suburbs of Helmand. Qutb published an open letter, to the revolutions leaders,, stressing that the only way to curb moral corruption was to impose a ―just dictatorship‖, that would grant political legitimacy to only ―the virtuous‖. Nasser‘s government and the Brotherhood were mismatched from the beginning, The Islamist‘s wanted a society ruled by Sharia, Nasser wanted to expand the role of his authoritarian, secular, nationalist government. Qutb was imprisoned by Nasser in 1954, three months later he was released. Upon his release he became the editor of the Muslim Brotherhood‘s magazine of the same name. On October 26, 1954. An Egyptian Brotherhood acolyte attempted an assassination on Nasser, he fired eight shot‘s wounding one of Nasser‘s bodyguards and missing Nasser entirely. Nasser reacted swiftly and brutally, six Muslim Brotherhood members were arrested then hanged, while thousands of others were placed in concentration camps. Qutb‘s turn soon came, suffering from a high fever he was arrested; he was handcuffed and frog marched to prison. Several times he fainted along the way. He was held in a cell with vicious dogs and mercilessly beaten. In court Qutb said: ―The principles of the revolution have indeed been applied to us ―, as he raised his shirt to reveal the marks of torture. Some of the imprisoned Muslim Brothers staged a strike refusing to leave their cells; they were summarily shot to death.

Twenty three of them died in the assault, and forty six injured. Qutb saw the wounded being brought in since he was in the prison‘s hospital.

Qutb reasoned that true Muislims could never treat fellow Muslims in such a manner, resultantly they were not Muslims, the concept of takfir (excommunication), was revived by Qutb . He wrote his manifesto ―Milestones‖ (Ma‘alim fi al-Tariq), while in prison. Through the aid of family and friends, his book circulated for many years underground, in the form of letters to his brothers and sisters, who were also active Islamist‘s. The book saw its first printing in 1964 and was promptly banned, anyone caught with a copy could be charged with sedition. Qutb wrote: ―Mankind today is on the brink of a precipice. Humanity is threatened not only by nuclear annihilation but also by the absence of values. The West has lost its vitality and Marxism has failed. At this crucial and bewildering juncture the turn of Islam and the Muslim community has arrived‖. Qutb wrote that the Muslim community was: ―crushed under the weight of those false laws and teachings which are not even remotely related to the Islamic teachings. We need to initiate the revival of the Islamic movement in some Muslim country‖. Qutb‘s writings posited that some Islamic country needed to serve as a visible example, of Islam‘s forward march to world domination. ―There should be a vanguard which sets out with this determination and keeps walking the path. I have written Milestones for this vangaurd, which I consider to be a waiting reality about to be materialized‖. Sayyid Qutb was hanged on August 29, 1966.

25 Years prison sentence for ‘Murder Broker’ in the murder case Helmin Wiels.

25 Year prison sentence for B.C.A.F. in the case Magnus/Maximus.

Fonseca the defendant in this case followed the proceedings via a live video feed, from the Netherlands.

(Fem Judge) Mister Fonseca>>>> (Fonseca) yes.

(Fem Judge) “Your case was handled on the 19th and 21st of April and today (5/11/2017) is the ruling, which is as follows. The bench after careful study of the case file, we are overwhelmingly convinced that you in collusion   with others on May 5th conspired to rob mr Helmin Wiels of his life. In Judicial terms you (addressing Fonseca), are an accessory to murder.   The evidence pointing to your involvement in the murder of Helmin Wiels , is overwhelming and rest’s on 4 indicators , the testimony of 1. Elvis Kuwas,  2.  The testimony of the witness who was threatened (unnamed), 3.  The testimony of E. Gumbs, 4. The text’s that were exchanged by yourself and Jeorge Jamaloodin.   Each of the indicators in and    of themselves are not enough for a conviction, however when combined, there is more than sufficient evidence to substantiate our verdict. The defense claims that Kuwas’ testimony is so flawed i.e. untrustworthy that it cannot be used as prosecutable evidence. However the court’s ruling is that, mister Kuwas’ testimony is based in fact and is legally binding in this case as prosecutable evidence. The court’s ruling given the consistency of Kuwas’ testimony, that (Fonseca) you sir and mr Florentina (deceased) gave the orders for him to murder mr Helmin Wiels. In light of the testimony of mr Kuwas pertinent to the meeting in garage Florentina’s  where you (Fonseca), was present , verified by Kuwas’ wife Monalissa Kuwas Andrea.   The court’s decision is based on the overwhelming evidence, from the witnesses in this case and the SMS text’s exchanged between yourself and mr Jamaloodin. It is clear from the SMS text’s between yourself and mr Jamaloodin that you outsourced the ‘work’ to other’s one of which was as per his own testimony mister Kuwas. Furthermore it is clear from the exchanged texts that the ‘job’, was discussed at the home of mr Jamaloodin.  You have given no believable reason for those meetings.  Given the facts in this case the court has come to the conclusion that, you in collusion with Luigi Florentina  gave the orders to Elvis (Monster) Kuwas to assassinate mr Helmin Wiels, in exchange for a huge cash payment. Elvis Kuwas accepted the contract and on May 5, 2013 he murdered mr Wiels, on the Maria Ponpoen beach in broad daylight, Kuwas emptied the clip of his automatic weapon into the body of mr Wiels , with his body riddled by multiple gunshot wounds mister Wiels succumbed as a result of his injuries, on the spot. You sir in the first instance robbed mr Wiels of his right to life, and the right to life is a fundamental right that is guaranteed in our constitution and it is also protected, in our constitution. Your actions mister Fonseca has shown your utter contempt for this right, as a result of your actions you have caused irreparable harm to the family members of mr Wiels, resultantly the murder that was perpetrated on your orders in broad daylight, terrorized the community and caused widespread unrest in society. Murder is a deadly serious punishable offense, the court has concluded that there is no other option but to lay to your charge a lengthy prison sentence the court is fully aware of the gravity of the situation that, that in this case we are dealing with the murder of a politician. Helmin Wiels was prior to his murder Prime Minister and leader of the Pueblo Sobreano Party, at that time the primary political party in Curacao.  The onslaught did not only disturb the social order but shocked the community in its entirety here in Curacao. The murder of a party leader and Prime Minister means that irreparable harm has been done to society at large and in particular to the democratic process. This murder also exerted pressure on other politicians who, in its aftermath became fearful of going against the grain and publicly voicing their stand points and opinions, as is guaranteed in a democracy.  The court deems this murder worthy of a more lengthy sentence than in ordinary circumstances since this murder, is one with political characteristics. Mr Fonseca the court has decided to charge you with 25 years minus with time served in pretrial detention. This is the courts’ decision mr Fonseca you have the right to appeal within 14 days.                   

Caribbean adopts plan to seek slavery reparations.

KINGSTOWN, St. Vincent (AP) — Leaders of Caribbean nations on Monday unanimously adopted a broad plan on seeking reparations from European nations for what they say are the lingering ill effects of the Atlantic slave trade on the region.

 

A British human rights law firm hired by the Caribbean Community grouping of nations announced that prime ministers had authorized a 10-point plan that would seek a formal apology and debt cancellation from former colonizers such as Britain, France and the Netherlands. The decision came at a closed-door meeting in St. Vincent & the Grenadines.

 

According to the Leigh Day law firm, the Caribbean Community also wants reparation payments to repair the persisting “psychological trauma” from the days of plantation slavery and calls for assistance to boost the region’s technological know-how since the Caribbean was denied participation in Europe’s industrialization and confined to producing and exporting raw materials such as sugar.

 

The plan further demands European aid in strengthening the region’s public health, educational and cultural institutions such as museums and research centers.

 

It is even pushing for the creation of a “repatriation program,” including legal and diplomatic assistance from European governments, to potentially resettle members of the Rastafarian spiritual movement in Africa. Repatriation to Africa has long been a central belief of Rastafari, a melding of Old Testament teachings and Pan-Africanism whose followers have long pushed for reparations.

 

Martyn Day of the law firm called the plan a “fair set of demands on the governments whose countries grew rich at the expense of those regions whose human wealth was stolen from them.”

 

Day said an upcoming meeting in London between Caribbean and European officials “will enable our clients to quickly gauge whether or not their concerns are being taken seriously.” It was not immediately clear when the meeting to potentially seek a negotiated settlement will take place.

 

The idea of the countries that benefited from slavery paying some form of reparations has been a decades-long quest but only recently has it gained serious momentum in the Caribbean.

 

Caricom, as the political grouping of 15 countries and dependencies is known, announced in July that it intended to seek reparations for slavery and the genocide of native peoples and created the Caribbean Reparations Commission to push the issue and present their recommendations to political leaders.

 

They then hired Leigh Day, which waged a successful fight for an award compensation of about $21.5 million for surviving Kenyans who were tortured by the British colonial government during the so-called Mau Mau rebellion of the 1950s and 1960s.

 

The commission’s chairman, Hilary Beckles, a scholar who has written several books on the history of Caribbean slavery, said he was “very pleased” that the political leaders adopted the plan.

 

In 2007, then British Prime Minister Tony Blair expressed regret for the “unbearable suffering” caused by his country’s role in slavery but made no formal apology. In 2010, then French President Nicolas Sarkozy acknowledged the “wounds of colonization” and pointed out France had canceled a 56 million euro debt owed by Haiti and approved an aid package.

 

The Caribbean Reparations Commission said Monday that far more needed to be done for the descendants of slaves on struggling islands, saying it sees the “persistent racial victimization of the descendants of slavery and genocide as the root cause of their suffering today.”

 

Reblogged by Wade Bailey

 

Associated Press writer Duggie Joseph reported this story in Kingstown, St. Vincent, and David McFadden reported from Kingston, Jamaica.

 

Strategy Report Volume II Money Laundering and Financial Crimes March 2017. Sint Maarten.

United States Department of State

Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs

International

Narcotics Control

Strategy Report

Volume II

Money Laundering and Financial Crimes

March 2017

 

 

Sint Maarten

OVERVIEW

Sint Maarten is an autonomous entity within the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The Kingdom retains responsibility for foreign policy and defense, including entering into international conventions. The Kingdom may extend international conventions to the autonomous countries. With the Kingdom’s agreement, each autonomous country can be assigned a status of its own within international or regional organizations subject to the organization’s agreement. The individual countries may conclude MOUs in areas in which they have autonomy, as long as these MOUs do not infringe on the foreign policy of the Kingdom as a whole. In 1999, the Kingdom extended the UN Drug Convention to Sint Maarten, and in 2010, the UNTOC was extended to Sint Maarten.

A governor appointed by the King represents the Kingdom on the island and a Minister Plenipotentiary represents Sint Maarten in the Kingdom Council of Ministers in the Netherlands.

In June 2016, Aruba, Sint Maarten, the Netherlands, and Curacao signed an MOU with the United States to stimulate joint activities and enhance sharing of information in the areas of criminal investigation and upholding public order and security and to strengthen mutual cooperation in forensics and the organization of the criminal justice system. While the MOU is a broad-based attempt to improve all of the criminal justice system, one priority area is cracking down on money laundering operations.

VULNERABILITIES AND EXPECTED TYPOLOGIES

Sint Maarten has an offshore banking industry consisting of one bank.

Many hotels legally operate casinos on the island, and online gaming is also legal but is not subject to supervision.

Sint Maarten’s favorable investment climate and rapid economic growth over the last few decades have drawn wealthy investors to the island to invest their money in large scale real estate developments, including hotels and casinos. In Sint Maarten, money laundering of criminal profits occurs through business investments and international tax shelters. Its weak government sector continues to be vulnerable to integrity-related crimes.

KEY AML LAWS AND REGULATIONS

INCSR 2017 Volume II Country Reports

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KYC laws cover banks, lawyers, insurance companies, customs, money remitters, the Central Bank, trust companies, accountants, car dealers, administrative offices, Tax Office, jewelers, credit unions, real estate businesses, notaries, currency exchange offices, and stock exchange brokers.

The MLAT between the Kingdom of the Netherlands and the United States, rather than the U.S. – EU Agreement, which has not yet been extended to the Kingdom’s Caribbean countries, applies to Sint Maarten and is regularly used by U.S. and Sint Maarten law enforcement agencies for international drug trafficking and money laundering investigations.

Sint Maarten is a member of the CFATF, a FATF-style regional body, and, through the Kingdom, the FATF. Its most recent mutual evaluation can be found at: https://www.cfatf-gafic.org/index.php/documents/cfatf-mutual-evaluation-reports/sint-maarten-1

 

AML DEFICIENCIES

In July 2015, Sint Maarten’s FIU reported that hundreds of unusual financial transaction investigations were backlogged at the Sint Maarten Public Prosecutor’s Office. Approximately 1,138 reports totaling $243 million have not been investigated.

The UNCAC has not yet been extended to Sint Maarten.

Sint Maarten has yet to pass and implement legislation to regulate and supervise its casino, lottery, and online gaming sectors in compliance with international standards. In addition, the threshold for conducting customer due diligence in the casino sector does not comply with international standards.

ENFORCEMENT/IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES AND COMMENTS

The National Ordinance Reporting Unusual Transactions establishes an “unusual transaction” reporting system. Designated entities are required to file unusual transaction reports (UTRs) with the FIU on any transaction that appears unusual (applying a broader standard than “suspicious”) or when there is reason to believe a transaction is connected with money laundering. If, after analysis of an unusual transaction, a strong suspicion of money laundering arises, those suspicious transactions are reported to the public prosecutor’s office.

The harbor of Sint Maarten is well known for its cruise terminal, one of the largest in the Caribbean islands. The local container facility plays an important role in the region. Larger container ships dock their containers in Sint Maarten where they are picked up by regional feeders to supply the smaller islands surrounding Sint Maarten. Customs and law enforcement authorities should be alert for regional smuggling, TBML, and value transfer schemes.

Ahead of pivotal European elections, rightist websites grow in influence.

The following post by Michael Birnbaum on March 6, for the Washington Post is a potent example, of the increasingly nationalist, populist direction that the Caucasian masses in Europe are willingly marching in. In step with their North American counterparts. The political elite on Sint Maarten will not take heed, the present course of developments in Europe and America will, force the politically progressive in the Caribbean including belatedly Sint Maarten, to unite out of a shared sense of mutual self-preservation.  To you Sint Maarteners who frequent this platform, read with an understanding and learn the salient potent lessons herein.

AMSTERDAM — On the brand-new political news website, the headlines could have been ripped from a speech by President Trump: Immigrants commit more crime, Syrian refugees are raping girls, and Muslim education is taking over the school system.

But the two-month-old Gatestone Europe website is based in the Netherlands; the contributors are Dutch. And their aim, their editor says, is to swing the debate ahead of European elections this year to deliver a tide of anti- immigrant leaders to office in the Netherlands, France, Germany and elsewhere.

Websites that focus on the perils of open borders, immigration and international alliances are expanding in scope and ambition in Europe, seeing a once-in-a-generation opportunity to harness the energy from Trump’s win to drive deep into a continent where traditional political parties are struggling. Some of the websites are registered in Russia. Others, like Gatestone Europe, are being supported by Americans with ties to Trump.

In the Netherlands, some online activists are backing a handful of anti-Muslim candidates, including the fiery Geert Wilders, who is running in a dead heat against the ruling party ahead of March 15 elections. In France, news blogs are spreading innuendo about the rivals of the anti-immigrant Marine Le Pen, who is the most popular presidential candidate in the lead-up to the election in April and May. And in Germany, some of the outlets have spread false stories about refugees raping people that were repeated by the Russian foreign minister. Fed by public anger about refugees, the Muslim-bashing Alternative for Germany party is poised to seize seats in Germany’s Parliament in September.

“There’s quite a lot of news, quite shocking, often with rape or violence and immigrants,” said Timon Dias, 29, who started Gate­stone Europe last month after several years of writing for a different anti-establishment website in the Netherlands. “We want people to learn what’s happening in Europe and vote accordingly, especially ahead of elections this year.”

Although many of the sites are small — the Amsterdam-based Gatestone Europe has only four writers, and no office — they do not need to be well established to score big on Facebook or Twitter. A spicy individual post can go viral with little regard for the history of the outlet.

It’s a crowbar in the system,” Dias said. “The main line is highly vigilant, highly critical about what the effects are of having a significant Muslim minority in the inner cities.”

The project is funded by the New York-based Gatestone Institute, which is chaired by former U.N. ambassador John Bolton, who was a finalist in Trump’s search for a new national security adviser. Contacted for comment, the Gatestone Institute made available one of its board members, retired Harvard Law professor Alan Dershowitz, who said that the organization is nonpartisan and that its aim is to “move the debate to the center.” Bolton did not reply to a request for comment.

As with other similar sites, many of Gatestone’s posts are based on true events, spun aggressively to feed the narrative that mainstream, pro-European Union politicians are selling out their countries to immigrants. The site does not support any one candidate in the Dutch elections, but the anti-E.U. leader of the small Forum for Democracy party, Thierry Baudet, is a contributor.

“We report the news to our readers in a directed way,” Dias said.

Although Wilders is likely to face trouble forming a coalition and Le Pen is forecast to lose the second round of France’s presidential election, both candidates have had success in shifting ­debate in their nations onto

more anti-immigrant, Euroskeptic ground. Far-right websites are often their megaphone.

In the Netherlands, similar news outlets have already made successful forays into Dutch political life.

A referendum last year on whether the Dutch government should ratify a trade deal with Ukraine was triggered by a far-right news site, GeenStijl.

The eventual rejection of the trade deal turned into an embarrassing defeat for the Dutch government, which was forced to backpedal on its commitment to Ukraine. Opponents of the trade deal, including GeenStijl, cited an opposition to E.U. expansion and a desire not to antagonize the Kremlin as reasons to vote it down.

Pro-Ukraine-deal campaigners say they suspect that the Kremlin put a finger on the scale by supporting activists and pro-Russian trolls online, although no link has been proved. The activists, including GeenStijl, deny any connection.

But even absent ties to Russia, the news sites demonstrated a powerful ability to disrupt the pro-E.U. agenda of the Dutch mainstream, creating a political headache for Dutch leaders and feeding Western disunity that coincides with Kremlin efforts.

“The Ukraine referendum has shown what kind of mayhem they can cause,” said Cas Mudde, a Dutch scholar of far-right movements at the University of Georgia. “What impressed a lot of people was their ability to mobilize people who were commenting on websites to go out and actually vote for a cause. People weren’t expecting that.”

Now GeenStijl’s political arm, GeenPeil — Dutch for “no poll” — has spun off into a political party and is contesting the parliamentary election on the promise to hold Dutch leaders accountable.

“Until my generation, everybody had a better life than their parents. That has stopped,” said Jan Dijkgraaf, 54, a former journalist who is now the leader of GeenPeil.

He said he did not consider himself a far-right politician, but he seized on immigration as a major focus for Dutch voters.

Dijkgraaf said he could understand if a mother of three needed temporary refuge from war. “But when there are boys of 25 with these kind of muscles, you have to think, are they really victims of a war, or do they have plans to get rich, or to do something like in Brussels or in Paris?”

The Ukraine referendum sparked a number of political parties, most of which have struggled to break through Wilders’s lock on anti-immigrant discourse in the Netherlands.

Wilders was using Twitter to spark outrage and publicity long before Trump turned to electoral politics. A tweet last month of a leading political opponent, Alexander Pechtold, Photoshopped into a pro-sharia demonstration in London dominated political coverage for days. Wilders later acknowledged that the photo was fake but said Pechtold had recently been to a similar demonstration.

“They don’t care about what is really true, what is a little true, or what is fake,” Pechtold said. “And that’s of course what we have seen in the United States.”

In the far-right Web universe, the faked picture caused no uproar.

“It’s a way of speaking to people,” said Bert Brussen, editor of ThePostOnline, another far-right website where headlines on recent articles have included “Iraqis on Trial for Gang Rape in Vienna” and “Massacre by Islamic terror was again prevented in Germany.”

“A lot of what Wilders says, it’s Internet language,” Brussen said. “The Internet makes them stronger, and they make the Internet stronger.”

In other countries with elections this year, far-right sites are also thriving, attracting the attention of some of the American outlets that helped propel Trump to victory. Last year, Breitbart News — whose former head, Stephen K. Bannon, is now Trump’s chief strategist — said that it would take the plunge into the French and German markets, although there is so far little sign that it is readying to open.

But anti-establishment activists in those countries may need little help.

In France, where far-right candidate Le Pen wants to take a hard line against Muslim immigration, hold a referendum on E.U. membership and embrace relations with the Kremlin, far-right news sites have taken aim at whichever candidate appears most likely to challenge her in the final round of the presidential election, due to be held May 7. (Le Pen is expected to win the first round.)

For months, that was center-right candidate François Fillon. More recently, a surge from the centrist Emmanuel Macron has drawn a volley of darts from ­rumor-mongering websites, some of them branches of Russian state media. Macron recently took on the rumors, joking that his apparent ability to have gay affairs puzzled his wife, who is usually by his side.

And in Germany and Austria, experts say roughly 30 German-language “alternative websites” are currently operating. Many have existed for years, but they have transformed into machines to undermine traditional politicians, especially since the start of Europe’s refugee crisis.

The majority of them, experts say, tend to have opaque ownership structures, making it difficult to ascertain who is behind them. They are almost universally pro-Russian in tone, and some of the German-language sites are operated from Russian servers, though direct links to the Russian government are hard to find.

“They publish stories with a true core, building their own atmosphere around this core, what we call ‘hybrid fake,’ ” said Andre Wolf, a spokesman for Mimikama, an Austria-based fact-checking website.

Many stories seem aimed at undermining German Chancellor Angela Merkel’s bid for reelection on Sept. 24. But as a center-left challenger, Martin Schulz, rose in the polls in recent weeks, along surged a flurry of fake reports — including one by the website AnonymousNews.ru falsely claiming that his father once ran a Nazi concentration camp.

Across Europe, Dias said, the possibility of change is alive.

“People feel the epicness of the times they’re living in,” he said.

Michael Birnbaum is The Post’s Brussels bureau chief. He previously served as the bureau chief in Moscow and in Berlin, and was an education reporter.

Study shows poor school infrastructure in Latin America, Caribbean.

Cross posted from the Jamaica Observer.

WASHINGTON, United States (CMC) — A new study has found that only one in four students in basic education in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) attends an educational centre with sufficient school infrastructure.

 

The study undertaken by the Education Division of the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) and UNESCO Regional Bureau for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean involved a comparative analysis of the relation between the state of school infrastructure in the region and learning among students from 15 countries.

 

The research involved a comparison of students’ results in the assessments of the Third Regional Comparative and Explanatory Study (TERCE) and school infrastructure characteristics and it revolved around the concepts of sufficiency, equity, and effectiveness.

 

The TERCE study was carried out by the Latin American Laboratory for Assessment of the Quality of Education (LLECE), which is coordinated by the UNESCO Regional Bureau for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

 

 

 

The study concludes that only one in four students in basic education in the region attend an educational centre with sufficient school infrastructure.

 

“Sufficiency is a concept related to access to six infrastructure categories: water and sanitation; connection to services; educational or academic spaces; offices areas; multipurpose rooms, and classroom equipment. In contrast, almost one third of the students in basic education attend schools with only two or less categories that met sufficiency levels of school infrastructure.”

 

Similarly, the analysis reveals significant inequalities in access to the different categories of school infrastructure, both in terms of students’ socioeconomic status and the geographic location of schools. In general, lower income students from countries that participated in TERCE attend schools with infrastructure in poor conditions.

 

The study also confirmed that most of the school infrastructure categories are positively and significantly associated with the students’ learning achievements.

 

“Although the situation is slightly different in each country, pedagogical and educational spaces (other than classrooms), followed by connection to services and the presence of multipurpose classrooms, are the infrastructure categories that are most often associated with higher learning achievements,” the report noted..

 

The IDB and UNESCO note that the research “highlights that the challenges for countries in the region lie not only in the provision of school infrastructure, but also in ensuring that these facilities truly become spaces and environments that promote a quality education”.

Rastafari in the Grenada Revolution.

 

new-picture

The above poster art depicting a likeness of Maurice Bishop and Bob Marley was a salient reality in Grenada. Rastafari in Grenada were active participants in the revolution on Grenada.

. The following is from the paper Rastafari in the Grenada Revolution by Arthur Newland: “One aspect of the revolution that few scholars have focused on is the pivotal role played by the Rastafari brethren of Grenada in the early days of the‘Revo’—and their subsequent suffering under the People’s Revolutionary Government. The Rastafari were the first group to throw in their lot with the revolution, and without their grassroots support, it would have been difficult for the NJM to achieve success. The first images that the outside world saw of Grenada after the 1979 coup were of dreadlocked soldiers, reflecting the fact that two-thirds of the original People’s Liberation Army was Rastafari (more than a thousand brethren representing Rastas from all regions of the island). Within months, these frontline supporters fell out of favour with the PRG’s leaders and their ideology. This paper draws on the testimony of Prince Nna Nna or Ras Nang, the island’s first black belt martial artist, who trained the troops of the People’s Revolutionary Army, and at one time was Maurice Bishop’s bodyguard. His account, in an interview with Dr Ikael Tafari, of the brutal oppression of the Rastafari during the “Revo” includes allegations of beatings, imprisonment, torture and executions by the PRG. My own meeting with Ras Nang gives ethnographic insights into how Rastafari influenced the Caribbean’s political and social evolution”.  (From the microfiche records of seized Grenadian Revolution records, held at Maryland Record Office, USA, available to the public.) Crowe/Crow/Crichlow, Winston/Dennis ‘Ras/Rasta Nang Nang/Prince Nna Nna’, former member of Peoples Revolutionary Army, martial arts instructor for Peoples Revolutionary Army, jeweller, shot during an escape attempt; River Road, St. George’s; re: held in the interest of national security, public safety and public order; charged before the Courts with attempting to escape lawful custody (S.3 Preventive Detention Regulations, detained 14 OCT 1979 to 22 APR 1981 (7 months); detained again 11 JUL 1981 and released 25 OCT 1983, at Fort Rupert Prison 22 JUL 1981, also Richmond Hill Prison and Hope Vale. Shot multiple times during arrest and escape attempt from ‘Babylon’s dungeon’. The preceding is an official microfiche document establishing the identity and standing in the PRA of the man, being interviewed.

Ikael Tafari the late Rastafari ideologue wrote in his work Rastafari in transition, in an interview with Rastafari Grenadian elder, Prince Nna Nna, a black belt expert and the man who personally trained Maurice Bishop’s soldiers in self-defense techniques. What follows are transcript’s from that taped interviewin colloquial Grenadian “English(authors note the pronounciation in the transcript are in Grenadian colloquial “English”, peppered with much Rasta speak i.e. Iyaric): “Q:  Prince Nna, the crucial question is: why did the PRG look on the Rastafari as a threat during the course of the Grenada Revolution?

 

A:        Because the Rastafari were more popular, more grassroot and more genuinely revolutionary than the Maurice Bishop administration at that time.

 

Q:        What kind of following did the Rastaman have during that period?

 

A:        Rasta had a bigger following then than Bishop and his people.

 

Q:        What kind of number among the Rases themselves are we talking about here?

 

A:        At that stage, remember, it wasn’t Rasta alone. It was Rasta and the general public which fully supported the Rastafari cause. You could even see this at our weekly Nyahbingi meetings. Plenty more people were coming to our Nyahbingi celebrations than those going to Maurice Bishop and dem political meetings. And that caused jealousy.

 

Q:        What number of Rases in the town area would be gathering at these Nyahbingis?

 

A:        At that time, approximately a thousand to twelve hundred Rastas—I not speaking yet of sympathizers and people coming to hear what the Rastaman had to say.

 

Q:        You mean three or four hundred people from the general public?

 

A:        Plenty more than that. Whole villages of people. Especially in places like Victoria, Gouyave and Sauteurs and right in St. George’s.

 

Q:        There were more Binghiman in the country than in the town at that time?

 

A:        The Rasta people in Grenada in that period lived more in the mountain, in the interior. A good portion of brethren also lived in the town, but the biggest concentration was in the hills. Rasta in Grenada was more originally a hills vibration like in most of the other Caribbean islands. It was the Maurice Bishop administration that ran the Rasta out of the hills.

 

Q:        At what stage?

 

A:        That was just at the time the Cubans started to come into Grenada, say around the first three months of the Revolution.

 

Q:        That early?

 

A:        Yes. Very early in the Revolution, Maurice Bishop started fighting against the Rastafari. Technically, psychologically and then openly. There are many ways, you know. You have to be very sharp to observe these intellects and lawyers like Maurice and Radix and all the other political gangsters.

 

Q:        How many Rastas were in the original People’s Liberation Army?

 

A:        The Liberation Army was predominantly Rasta. Let’s say two–thirds at least.

 

Q:        You mean a thousand or more?

 

A:        More than a thousand. There were Rastas in it from all different regions of the island.

 

Q:        Did any of these Rases sit on any of the popular representative bodies of the Revo-like zonal councils or committees for example?

 

A:        Well, the Rasta people were on the frontline, looking to preserve the peace and security of the country and to quell any violent opposition, like. Rasta at that time was a middle man and a liberator. His part in the Revolution was keeping the peace while Maurice and dem part was organizing political power. So while the Rastas were on the battlefield looking to secure the Revolution, Maurice and his little clique were preparing to set up the government.

 

Q:        And getting together a whole new army of his own from his hometown, St. Paul’s, too?

 

A:        Yes, and recruiting foreigners in important position, too. And giving them ranks even higher than those of the genuine revolutionaries who had fought to win freedom for the people. Most of the people who fought the battle in Grenada against Gairy and afterwards, too, never really got their due honour or respect or authority. But, seeing that the Rasta people were ever willing to sacrifice their life for the Revo, it was strange that Maurice and dem ended up putting the Rastas as their enemy, just because Rasta was the first to tell these political leaders, look, what all-yuh doing is wrong. All-yuh done make a covenant with the people and you must fulfill it. Because Rasta was tracking all of their statements on the radio, the different promises Maurice Bishop made to the nation.

 

Q:        To what effect? You mean about marijuana?

 

A:        Well, on the air, he never made any declaration about marijuana to my knowledge, but before March 13th, the struggle had been based on a broad vision of liberating the grassroots man—spiritually, intellectually, economically and even in terms of freeing up the proper cultural use of the herb.

 

And Maurice was the main man behind the scenes identifying with the Rastaman. I say this because I personally was a very close associate of Maurice from the first days of the Revolution when Grenada was just militarizing. I was the Physical Training (P.T.) instructor for the whole army. So I was lobbying for the Rasta people, and had the opportunity to speak closely with the revolutionary leader at that time and discuss Rasta problems with him.

 

And when Maurice formed the new government and left out Rasta completely, I told him, the first time we met after the government had been formed, that he should never do what he did behind the Rasta people’s back, and furthermore, the Rastafari should have their representative in the government to secure the Rastaman’s interests, and to make sure that the people of Grenada get justice—all the different cultures and religions—because I could see where the leadership was heading from the time that they could set up a government without including the Rastafari who were the main spearhead of the people’s struggle at that time.

 

Q:        Did the Muslims sympathize with these views held by the Rastas?

 

A:        At first, some of the Muslims were vexed with the Rastas for taking up arms to support the Revo, especially since the Muslims were more advanced in revolutionary strategy. They were more aware when it came to politics than the Rastas, and in their military training, too. At that stage Rasta’s concern was less with politics and more with basic survival. But when the Revolution began to get into full swing and Maurice cry out for help and made his covenant with the nation, the Rastaman began to gear up himself militarily. He was always in the Revolution as the vanguard of the people’s consciousness, you see, but now he began to get himself more politically organized.

 

Q:        Were the Muslims in close co-ordination then with the Rases?

 

A:        True. Both were prepared to struggle alongside one another in the Revo, because at one stage, all the people who believe in the Supreme Architect, the mighty I AM—the Rases call him Rastafari, the Muslims call him Allah and the Christians call him Jesus Christ—at that stage there was a real spiritual unity among all these different religions in Grenada in the face of a common persecution.

 

Some of the Muslims were I and I true brethrens and when we get the opportunity we pray together, too. I pray in my own Rastafari tradition and they pray in their Muslim tradition and we respect each other—especially brethren such as Bilal, Yusuf and Habib. Certain days we come together and I explain my spiritual tradition and they explain theirs and we reason together about our beliefs. There was never any conflict among I and the Muslims because I read the Koran and I even come to the understanding that certain things in there pertain to Haile Sellassie I. Also, I taught all of the Muslims Martial Arts in prison.

 

Q:        You are speaking of your shared time in detention, but before that was there that much overlap between the two groups?

 

A:        Yes, even before the Revolution there was solidarity between us. The two religions actually sprang up in Grenada at around the same time. The Rastafarian religion was earlier and more predominant, had more followers, you know, because most of the Muslims was brethren that was coming out from long established Trinidad and Guyana Muslim communities, and some from the Far East, too. The Rasta movement was more, you know, a local thing, but the Muslim and the Rasta had a very firm alliance. At one time I discover that the unity was so strong that we together could have ruled Grenada.

 

Q:        Was Bishop closer to the Rases or the Muslims?

 

A:        Well, Maurice was close to everybody. But at one point when I made the statement to the Torchlight reminding him concerning his promise to the nation about elections after six months, and the end to discrimination in the schools against I and I, and the fact that the Rasta was pushing for representation in Government—not only what he had promised but Rasta rights, in terms of participation in the consolidation of the Revo—

 

Q:        Some people argue that by bringing those charges against the PRG, the Rases were playing into the hands of the same rich people, and that the bourgeoisie, whose interests were traditionally represented by Torchlight, were taking the opportunity to manipulate the Rases’ resistance so as to further certain ultimately CIA-type interests in actively fighting against the Revo.

 

A:        The Rastafari take a different view. You see, Rasta in Grenada was all class of people, even the children of the rich.

 

Q:        But again some have argued that the grassroots Rastaman rejected those from the ranks of the petty bourgeois who sought to join the movement. Was this so?

 

A:        I wouldn’t accept that argument as such. I would have to balance it. You see, after Maurice set up the government, the Rasta people came to the full realization that this was not a genuine people’s government, as we could see it was class-biased in favour of the petty bourgeoisie—

 

Q:        It was not a genuinely revolutionary government, in other words?

 

A:        Seen. At that stage, the Rastafari did not give them the recognition of being a revolutionary government. A genuine revolutionary government would have to respect the rights of the various people of different classes and religions to be all represented at the national level. But instead Bishop took his chosen few and set up an elite with mainly foreigners to control the country.

 

Q:        Did Rastaman play a part in some of the national organizations, like the National Youth Organization, and the co-operatives for instance?

 

A:        The Rasta people took part in all the different arms of the Revolution, even the political arm. There were brethren such as Pyta from Gouyave who was an instructor in Marxism/Leninism. He was a member of the Party also.

 

Q:        So there were Rasta in the actual NJM Party structure?

 

A:        Truly.

 

Q:        From before the Revolution?

 

A:        Before and after. Plenty Rastas were members of the NJM. A good portion had also joined the Party before they came to a consciousness of the Rastafari faith. Many in the NJM carried dreadlocks, while they were at the same time studying Marxism and prepared to administrate it, too, as it was later practised full brutality—at Hope Vale, for example.

 

Q:        But surely no genuine Rastaman would have supported these policies of the PRG, carried out in many cases against other brethren.

 

A:        Many man supported them to the very end. Many dreadman were in the Army up to the end of the war. But the majority of these ended up trimming their locks, you see. To be frank, the Revolution really started with dread and ended up with bald head. Eventually all sections of the population became involved, you know, because it was a genuine people’s revolution. But the politicians destroyed this genuine revolutionary spirit of mass unity. You see, they felt themselves so wise that they thought they could set up a little government on their own, and then dash the Rasta people one side.

 

Q:        What about the role played by Ras Kabinda (Desmond Trotter) from Dominica in all this?

 

A:        Well, Kabinda is a beloved Rasta brethren I know very well. He came to Grenada when Bishop had I in prison. He went to Maurice and beg for my release from detention and Maurice agree to let me go on humanitarian grounds. But at the same time he was pressuring I to sign documents stating that I would never practise my spiritual concept against the PRG, and that if I ever engaged in such activity I would have to go into prison or exile. In this way, my faith—the Nyahbingi tradition—was technically outlawed under Maurice and dem administration.

 

Q:        At what point? Before the Torchlight issue?

 

A:        No, after the Torchlight issue.

 

Q:        So that is what really brought the confrontation between the Rastafari and the PRG to a head then: the Torchlight affair.

 

A:        No, the Rasta and the PRG was already at war over Bishop’s broken promises, both concerning elections and the end to victimization of Rasta children in the schools.

 

Q:        How soon had he promised to keep elections?

 

A:        Within six months. Arid the Rases were the first to approach Maurice about this breach of political faith.

 

Q:        So their protest took place before that of the other dissenters like Winston Whyte and Stanley Cyrus?

 

A:        Yes.

 

Q:        And yet many of the official accounts claim that the Rastas were being used by men like Cyrus Henry and Teddy Victor.

 

A:        Rasta was not used. Rasta went independently before Maurice in late September of `79—I was the elder brethren and main spokesman—I an’ I congregation of brethren, daughters and children all went up to Maurice’s home and asked him why he was refusing to call the election within 6 months of March 13 as agreed. I was detained two days after the Torchlight publication.

 

I an’ I had a gigantic Binghi on the Saturday at which the PRG was again declared to be anti-Rasta. And I was picked up on the next day—Sunday. That Binghi was held at Victoria and it shake Maurice’s whole regime, because people came out in their thousands from every corner of Grenada in solidarity. Some even had to walk to reach the spot. At that time, I was a commander in the army. We were taking some military training at that stage from the Guyanese.

 

At the meeting with Maurice, one of the points I raised was concerning the scholarships that were being given to officers in the army to go to certain countries like Cuba, Libya and Russia so as to further their studies. I told him Rasta was seeking to go to Africa to pursue career training in medicine, law and so on.

 

As Sellassie I live, Maurice turned and told I he had always thought that Rasta was only a matter of painting and carving. So then I replied to him, if Rasta was only concerned with painting and carving, how come Rastaman was the first to come out bearing arms on March l3th.

 

That was the turning point in the relationship between Maurice and the Rasta community. You see when Maurice made that statement, I an’ I could see clearly how Maurice was looking on the grassroots people. It was clear that he never intended to provide the Rastafari with the opportunity to educate and develop themselves so as to give greater service to their country.

 

I even raised the question once again, more directly, with Maurice: Why Russia and not Africa? I had the privilege of questioning him because I and Maurice were still very close at that stage. So I just call my Rasta brethren and sistren together afterwards in my yard, because that was the main place in the town where Rasta used to assemble in those days. Rasta from all over the island used to meet there in I yard and discuss Rasta problems.

 

So I say to my idren, “Beloved, I an’ I can see that Bishop doesn’t recognize I an’ I. So I-man not going to tarry among dem men.” And I just depart from the Army same time. A while afterwards, they come to me one day and suggest they would like I to set up a programme for a military parade they keeping. So I went back. And I put on one of the sharpest parade dem ever see in Grenada specially for them, and then I left and never look back.

 

So the revolutionary army eventually died. Or, I should say, the political leadership destroyed it very early in the Revolution. There was a power struggle and the revolutionaries were overthrown actually within the first two months of the Revolution. When I say the revolutionaries, I mean the brethren who first stepped out on the battlefield and made the revolution—not Bishop and dem who was all waiting on board a yacht just off the coast to escape if the attack that morning on Gairy’s army barracks failed.

 

Q:        But let’s get back to Kabinda. As I understand it, he was a key player in the whole drama between Rasta and Maurice Bishop. Bishop had become close to Kabinda originally while defending him in the celebrated case trumped up against him for murder in Dominica.

 

A:        Truly. At first Kabinda was strongly supporting Maurice. I tried to show him the kind of man Maurice was, when I was in prison. Kabinda came to the prison to visit I, and I tell him plainly in the presence of everybody how I see Maurice and his clique. I tell him I see them as wicked men who pretending to be something that they are not. Not only Maurice but all of them, because I had close reasonings with the entire core of the PRG leadership. Including, to a lesser extent, Bernard Coard. From the first time I met him I could see that he loved to dominate. Because he came into the room with a martial arts class in full progress. And he had to interrupt it, you know. He never show no respect. But when he realize he meet up on a little Rastaman who could defend himself with words as well as with blows, then he shake my hand and say he would like to meet me again to reason further and so on. He even set up a meeting between himself and I at one stage when Rasta and Maurice was going through some conflict, but it never came to pass because they came and lock I up before the time appointed.

 

Q:        Some people believe that while Bishop was negotiating with the Rases, Coard and his OREL group, who were definitely not in favour of legalization of marijuana or Rasta representation in government, were undermining his position of leadership in the Party. So that, in effect, Bishop’s hands were tied from the start, even if he himself had wanted to grant concessions to Rasta.

 

A:        That might have been so but what I have to say is that Maurice didn’t really want these things personally, according to my knowledge of the man. After March 13, after they got into power and they started getting international recognition, I said to Maurice, “Forget about taking on America, it doesn’t make sense. Try to be non-aligned.” That is when Rasta had come out and publicly pledged allegiance to the new government. Rastaman had actually offered his services to Bishop to build the country. Rasta with all kinds of intellectual training were willing to give him their counsel. But he prefer to take Cubans as his advisers. And I realize that a lot of these outside people who had only just come to Grenada try to belittle I an’ I in the presence of Maurice, when Rasta was the real Field-Marshal General of the Revolution. Rasta entered the Revolution at the top. We didn’t go into the Revolution as a divided house.

 

We had we own organization, we unity and we own military weapons. And the people’s support as well. So we had the right to know anything going on that could affect the fate of the revolution. Rasta stepped onto the battlefield in Grenada because we hear the people cry out for help and we see that blood was going to run red. But Rasta didn’t enter the Revolution as a people that come to dominate, but as a liberator. We discuss the whole question about Rasta involvement among weself on the eve of the overthrow, and we come to one mind to step forward in the service of the black people. But since Maurice and dem never ground with the people, they cause whole heap of problems. On the morning of the coup, only one person was killed. But afterwards Maurice regime kill many people, so many innocent people.

 

Q:        I notice you said that the Revolution should have pursued a policy of non-alignment, but could Grenada realistically afford to be scrupulously non-aligned? Wasn’t it a matter of survival why the PRG lined up with Russia and Cuba, I mean as a matter of self-defence?

 

A:        What a lot of people do not know is that it was not Cuba that first stretched out the hand of substantial military assistance to the Revolution. It was Guyana. Guyana sent military advisers and men expert in combat techniques and from the start gave the Revolution military weapons, but Maurice had other ideas. He wanted to shift to Cuban support because of reasons of ideology and culture. You see, the Guyanese military was mostly black man, and they were very sympathetic to the Grenadian popular culture and the Rastafari. But Maurice wanted to play down these genuine revolutionary aspirations and independent cultural feelings among the Grenadian people and pretend that the Revolution was Cuban or Marxist-inspired, to suit his own purpose. Bishop aligned himself with an outside force—Cuba—which tried over and over to dominate events in Grenada and impose their ideas born out of a different cultural situation, you know.

 

And yet the PRG could have drawn strength from better sources of ideas in their own country. But Maurice and dem chose instead to get together two or three college boys who were mostly afraid to come out and face the Green Beasts on March 13, and give them big ranks over men who were vigilant on the battlefield in dem early days of the Revo. So that was the first overthrow, when the PRG side-stepped the genuine revolutionary freedom-fighters and set up a petty bourgeois friendship clique to control the military in the name of revolution. But the main force that really overthrew the Gairy government in Grenada on March 13 was the Rastafari.

 

Q:        The Muslims did not play any significant role?

 

A:        Well, maybe individual Muslim, but not Muslims as an organized group.

 

Q:        But Habib and Yusuf were in that episode.

 

A:        Yeah, I won’t doubt.

 

Q:        And James Herry and the Budhlall brothers and other Black Power people, right?

 

A:        True. But although the NJM and their allies had military strength, they still did not have the power to capture the country. The NJM was pure paper cells. There were other forces in Grenada that created the Revolution beyond Maurice and dem. It was the grassroot village organizations across the countryside, especially St. Patrick’s, who had the people with them all the way. Maurice had he support too, but they were mostly cowards. They couldn’t face the battlefield. Some of dem were willing and prepared—Layne and Selwyn Strachan and such like—I don’t say no. Dem was there on the morning of the overthrow, too.

 

Q:        And those men were quickly given rank?

 

A:        That’s right. They had very little military training technically. Only Strachan Phillip was a full military soldier. Bishop and dem was so dogmatic that they never took the trouble to educate their party supporters much, military-wise. Only a few of them. Instead, these men were allowed to run around flashing rank. While the main revolutionaries who put their lives on the line never reaped anything from the revolution besides execution, exile and imprisonment. Maurice Bishop’s real aim was not to uphold any genuine revolutionary administration, you know. His main aim was to uphold a petty bourgeois dictatorship, you see, so with regard to the grassroot people, like Yusuf and Strachan Phillip, who were serious about revolutionary change in Grenadian society—Maurice had to destroy them, that was the only way he could get to perpetuate he little stupidness.

 

Q:        Did you know the two Rastaman from Tivoli, Gravel and Skull?

 

A:        I knew all the man dem. Skull was a very religious brethren. Gravel was a big strong Rastaman.

 

Q:        They were close to Buck and KB (Budhlall)?

 

A:        Yeah. Well, they were all from the same region and belonged to the same organization. They entered the Revolution together. These men were highly educated, too. I had many discussions with them in detention and they proved to be remarkable scholars in their own right… Going back to the case of Kabinda. Maurice and dem deport Kabinda from Grenada when the reality start to come out in the open that the PRG was oppressing Rasta. Kabinda began to see for himself the kind of man Maurice really was.

 

Q:        But originally he was in favour of Maurice?

 

A:        He loved Maurice, I can tell you that personally. But he had to draw the sword on Maurice wordically and show him he was being unjust. From the time Kabinda spoke out at the Binghi in September `79 in Gouyave where the Rasta house for the first time brought up official charges against the PRG—from that time Kabinda’s days were numbered. From the first week of the Revo, the PRG was encouraging Rastas to trim their locks. And when they did trim, they were given rank.

 

But it all came to a confrontation at the Binghi in Gouyave where I an’ I denounce Bishop and dem as traitor to the Revolution, because Revolution stands for rights and justice and respect for your brother and he that labour must hold the reins. But they never want to give I an’ I equal rights at all. And from that day—the first seven days of the Revolution—there was tension between the PRG and I an’ I. And a next thing that make it worse was the fact that I and another brethren Bronson was in command of the whole of St. George’s, the capital. We had we own transport and we own soldiers to patrol the whole region, right. We had authority to search who we want to search, destroy what we want to destroy and take what we want to take. But the Revolution never really loot or burn, because I and my Rasta brethren hold the roots people steady. We used to print pamphlets and other literature, too, and educate the people.

 

Q:        Ras Nang, was any Rastawoman featured in these activities?

 

A:        Plenty Rastawoman was on the battlefield; at that time it was more balanced in that respect, although, as you know within I an’ I faith the man always be predominant numbers-wise. Not only the knotty-dread man but the people in the villages in general used to move close with I an’ I and support the Rasta cause. It was a really joyous time. The people and Rasta came closer together in the time of Maurice, you know, because when the grassroots people saw what Maurice was doing, the only voice that would speak out against the injustice of the PRG was Rasta voice. The Grenadian people herald the Rastas as the champion of the masses.

 

I an’ I tell Maurice face to face, give the people what you promise them, otherwise I an’ I going to demonstrate against you, see. Plus they were trimming Rasta children to go to school and forcing them to trim if they want to go away on scholarship and all dem kind of things. I know a Rastaman called Medic, they forced him to trim to go away to Cuba for further training. At least, he is a police now, but I still consider him a Rastafari today. He trim but he never forget his Rastafarian principle of brotherhood. Up to now he have excellent relations with I an’ I and the public.

 

Bishop did not want we children to go to school with dread on their heads. He force one Rastaman (Ras Coach) to trim he children, and is from there that we decided to visit Bishop and confront him about these matters. All this was in the first month of the Revolution. When Maurice started to pick up de Rastas and lock dem up, many of the petty bourgeois people and the masses draw in close in solidarity. So he had the fight from all angle. When I say ‘petty bourgeois,’ I mean just a small percentage—his own political enemies. Maurice was working on them too. He fire nuff of dem from their jobs. In those times to get a work you had to be on the NJM’s political side. Rasta didn’t like that kind of political victimization. He went in the Revolution to get rid of downpression and when he see a new form of downpression infiltrating the Revolution, Rasta start to fight against it same way.

 

Maurice thought the Rases were he personal friends—give we a little drink and laugh and share out a little money like how he was accustomed to doing with his political patronage, and everything would be fine. He never realize that Rastaman is an independent spirit. You can’t really buy him. Because Bishop offer me nuff things. Today I read many of the books on the Grenadian Revolution, and I laugh at some of these authors. Probably if I had the money, I would sue a lot of them and get back some of the money that they made from spoiling I and my brethren’s name internationally with a heap of false allegations and reckless statements. Some of them never even visit Grenada much less to know what really took place.

 

This whole thing about the Torchlight incident and the idea that Rasta was supporting CIA: Rasta was never guilty of these charges. I and another brethren, Erasto Jo-Jo, came together in October and decided to fling in some arrows, because from March 13 things was boiling and boiling, and we had many audience with Maurice without getting any justice. We decided that since we were bearing arms in defence of the Revolution daily and nightly, we had the right to criticize and seek to get the movement set in a proper direction. I-man was a firm supporter originally of Maurice, but when I start to witness certain abuses, I realize that Rasta had to speak up to ensure that the people got their rights.

 

Because, to be honest, the Rastas could have secured their own particular interests during the time of the Revolution, but it would have been at the expense of the rights of the masses of people. Things were going on and the leadership that was supposed to be responsible for the Revolution did not even know. But I was in full touch with the people, so I knew what was going down. I was a decorated soldier and main security for the top Party echelons. Three times they begged I to take on the responsibility for the personal security of the PM. Everywhere the CC went, I had to be there. So I had access to their private counsels and I knew everything that they knew, as well as what they did not know. And for that cause, when I exposed them, they tried desperately on several occasions to kill I. But they couldn’t kill the Rastaman at all. By the powers of Sellassie I, I live to record this portion of history.

Selah.

 

 

 

In Grenada, nutmeg heads up an economic revolution December 2, 2013.

World Bank

STORY HIGHLIGHTS

 

In the Eastern Caribbean, agriculture is one of the quickest industries for creating jobs and businesses.

Individual farmers with smallholdings are highly vulnerable to economic and climate shocks which threaten their livelihood.

Latin America and the Caribbean has huge potential to be a global food superpower in the coming decades.

Cinnamon, nutmeg, cloves and ginger are often key baking ingredients. But on the island of Grenada they are also central ingredients in a burgeoning economic revolution.

 

The world’s second largest exporter of nutmeg, holding 20% of the market, this ‘Spice Island’ is now betting on agriculture to become an additional engine for an economy looking to diversify away from the usual sun and sand tourism and also shore up food security for its inhabitants.

 

While Latin America as a region is rich in water and arable lands (the region play’s home to around a third of the planet’s reserves), the small island nations of the Caribbean, such as Grenada and its neighbours, have to deal with the added challenge of a highly hostile climate, including hurricanes, severely limited freshwater supplies – which worsen further during the dry season – and a rising sea level.

 

Now smallhold farmers on this island paradise, situated some 200km off the Venezuelan coast, are leading an initiative to refocus Grenada’s economic profile with a project which has also caught the attention of other governments within the region.

 

Earnest Mitchell is just one of this next generation of local farmers.

 

“I’m thinking of doubling my production next year,” he explains with pride while showing us around his small farm perched high in Grenada’s fertile mountain region.

 

Earnest is one of 1,500 farmers who have taken part in a pilot project, which stands out thanks to its work “to identify our biggest challenges,” Earnest explains. This is no small feat on an island with a population of around 110 000, 70% of whom are considered to be rural. What’s more, the scheme is also opening the door to job creation on the island, where 40% of the active population is unemployed.

 

The farmers received technical assistance and financial support from the Japanese Social Development Fund and the World Bank to buy seeds, fertilizer, pesticides and tools. The crux of the project is, however, the possibility of protecting themselves from climate and economic shocks, and to better coordinate their production, especially after two consecutive hurricanes.

 

” I’m thinking of doubling my production next year. ”

Earnest Mitchell

Farmer, Grenada

Protection against natural disasters

 

While there is little farmers in Grenada can do against inclement weather in a region extremely exposed to natural phenomena, the project aims to alleviate potential economic, and also planning, havoc.

 

For example:  In 2004, Hurricane Ivan swept through the island, felling huge swathes of jungle along with many of the country’s valuable nutmeg, banana and cocoa plantations. A year later, Emily took much the same path, hampering efforts to rebuild the devastated farmlands and, above all, pushing the smallholders to respond, in desperation, with planting fruits and vegetables in an improvised manner.

 

Consequently the market has unwittingly been oversaturated by certain products while others suffer from a lack of supply, as the country experiences what experts call a cycle of over- and under-production.

 

Alongside limited water supplies and the impact of climate change, various Caribbean islands also suffer additional problems, and it is hoped that they can find a common solution.

 

“I think it’s going to be interesting to have a dialogue among all the OECS countries on this subject and see if we can do something in the future,” explains Eli Weiss, a rural development specialist for the World Bank.

 

For small hold farmers like Earnest, and their wider island community, it will be vital to protect themselves both from natural disasters and the damage they cause to their economies.

 

 

An Elevator Post for my Forthcoming Book.

SHAMANISM AS A GLOBAL CULTURAL VALUE SYSTEM vs APOSTOLIC CULTURE.

One of the critical geopolitical realities of our day is The adverse effects of GLOBAL TERRORISM. This book succinctly addresses the issue from a biblical perspective. It examines the effects of global terror on the Caribbean basins tourist driven economy.

My name is Wade Bailey and I accurately predicted the rise of the Islamic State in the Caribbean, since 2003. My critical analysis though posited from an Apostolic or biblical perspective is confirmed by US Generals, various reporters from the corporate and alternative media and professors and think tanks regionally as well as internationally. One such prominent personage is Daurius Figueria author, professor and lecturer at the University of the West Indies in Trinidad and Tobago. If you are resident in the Caribbean, a Caribbean heritage person or just an individual who travels to the region. The information in this book might hit a chord in you. It offers relevant real world solutions and information on a wide variety of topics, not limited to global terror, but an inclusive 21st nuanced approach. It examines Hip-Hop culture and its origins, Tupac Shakur the Black Panther’s and COINTELPRO and delves into insider information and pictures from the heyday of Death Row.  

History on a global scale is examined and current events in light of bible prophecy.

If the above topics are of relevance to you then this book is for you. The Book Rastafari and its Shamanist Origins, is the work that sparked the current book in question.

A tentative release date in the Summer of 2017 is planned for the book ;  SHAMANISM AS A GLOBAL CULTURAL VALUE SYSTEM vs APOSTOLIC CULTURE.Rastafari and its Shamanist Origins

Marcus Mosiah Garvey.

Many claim that Rastafari was as a result of a “prophecy”   by Marcus Mosiah Garvey.

Marcus Garvey the Jamaican-born 1930,s Black  Nationalist  and head of the U.N.I.A. was a vehement critic of Haile Selassie he maligned him for seeking British protection during the Italian aggression led  by Benito Mussolini against Ethiopia in the nineteen thirties .

Garvey never recognized the Rastafari as a serious Black Nationalist organization.

 

Marcus Mosiah Garvey the Jamaican-born leader of the U.N.I.A. the Universal Negro Improvement Association.  Garvey possessed a flair for the dramatic as is evinced in the choice of attire of him and his followers during their marches and rallies.

Garvey organized Africans on the continent and around the globe, around his Black Nationalist philosophy it is from the school of thought developed by this man, that many of the modern African intellectuals and Pan- Africanists gained their core ideology.

Although many earlier Garveyites later became Rastafari this was a personal choice not something inspired by a cohesive philosophy.

Garvey proclaimed many times in speeches that a prince would come out of Africa Ethiopia would soon stretch out her hands unto God quoting from psalms. In order to put into proper context what Garvey said I want to include some quotes pertinent to the alledged ‘prophecy”, by Marcus Garvey concerning Ethiopia. On November 8th 1930 Garvey published an article in his Jamaican newspaper the Black Man that read: “Last Sunday, a great ceremony took place at Addis Ababa, the capital of Abyssinia. It was the coronation of the new Emperor of Ethiopia — Ras Tafari. From reports and expectations, the scene was one of great splendor, and will long be remembered by those who were present. Several of the leading nations of Europe sent representatives to the coronation, there by paying their respects to a rising Negro nation that is destined to play a great part in the future history of the world.  Abyssinia is the land of the blacks and we are glad to learn that even though Europeans have been trying to impress the Abyssinians that they are not belonging to the Negro race, they have learned the retort that they are, and they are proud to be so.

Haile Sellassie has travelled to the West including America and is therefore no stranger to European and American hypocrisy and methods; he must be regarded as a kind of a modern Emperor, and from what we understand and know of him, he intends to introduce modern methods and systems into his country. Already he has started to recruit from different sections of the world competent men in different branches of science to help develop his country to the position that she should occupy among the other nations of the world.We do hope that Ras Tafari will live long to carry out his wonderful intentions. From what we have heard and what we do know, he is ready and willing to extend the hand of invitation to any Negro who desires to settle in his kingdom. We know of many who are gone to Abyssinia and who have given good report of the great possibilities there, which they are striving to take advantage of.

The Psalmist prophesied that Princes would come out of Egypt and Ethiopia would

stretch forth her hands unto God (Psalm 68:31). We have no doubt that the time is now come. Ethiopia is now really stretching forth her hands. This great kingdom of the East has been hidden for many centuries, but gradually she is rising to take a leading place in the world and it is for us of the Negro race to assist in every way to hold up the hand of Emperor Ras Tafari”. I included the entire article as a means of allowing the reader an understanding of the general context in which, Garvey spoke. After having read the article on numerous occasions it is plain to see that Garvey regarded Haile Sellassie as someone who symbolized black pride and nationalism at the time in question.

Rupert Lewis wrote a scholarly analysis on the Rastafarians which he entitled:  Marcus Garvey and the Early Rastafarians: Continuity and Discontinuity. In it he made certain interesting points and inferences, which are great for establishing a historically accurate documentary for the time period in question.  I will include some of the more dynamic and poignant, which as the reader will see bears up many points made in the present work.

I think the following from Lewis is poignant in understanding the viewpoints of Howell and Marcus Garvey; “The anticolonial content of Howell’s preaching was clear in

his message that black people’s only true king was Emperor Haile Selassie. But Garvey did not approve of Howell’s teaching and rejected his claims that Selassie was God”. Robert Hill in his book often quoted in this work wrote that; Garvey refused to allow Howell to sell the emperors picture in Edelweis Park, Jamaican headquarters of the UNIA. Lewis went on to state that Garvey was decidedly pro Christian and the doctrines that Howell taught were of a defiant anti-Christian character, which Lewis cited would have been in obvious conflict with Garvey’s publicly expressed Christianity. When Italy invaded Ethiopia Rastafari and certain Garveyites protested in Montego Bay on the western portion of Jamaica, similarly protesters took to the streets in St Kitts, Trinidad and other West Indian territories. Lewis wrote that; “The Garveyite newspaper Plain Talk was commended by Dr. Malaku Bayen, Haile Selassie’s personal representative in the United States, who was in charge of organizing the Ethiopian World Federation”. Early Rastafarian leaders Joseph Nathaniel Hibbert, Archibald Dunkley, and many other Rastas were foundation members of the first local branch of the Ethiopian World Federation established in Jamaica.  However, Garvey was very hostile in his criticism of Haile Selassie. As early as October 1935, Garvey had argued that the Italo-Ethiopian war “affords only another example of what unpreparedness means to a people.”

The following damning editorial that appeared in Garveys New Jamaican on August 13th 1932 references specifically Cannabis smoking. “Ganja is a dangerous weed; it has been pronounced so by responsible authorities. The smoking of it does a great deal of harm or injury to the smoker; we understand it has the same effect on the subject as opium has. Every day we hear of cases of ganja sellers, being brought before the Court.

Fines, small and heavy, have been inflicted with the object of destroying the trade, but yet it grows. The other day a man was found in possession of ninety pounds of Ganja, this was enough deadly weed to destroy a thousand men. That our people are being destroyed by the use of ganja there is absolutely no doubt.

We have come in contact with young men and middle aged men who have become a menace to society through the smoking of ganja. Sometimes they perform in such a crazy manner as to frighten us. Aren’t we playing with the danger by not more severely putting it down? Most of the people who smoke ganja do so as a means of getting themselves in such a state or condition as to forget their troubles and worries — troubles and worries brought upon them by the bad conditions that exist in the country…. It would be good that more serious steps be taken to suppress this ganja habit. Between ganja and fanatical religion, we are developing a large population of half-crazy people who may not only injure themselves but injure us. Some will do it in the name of the “Lord” and others may do it under the influence of the evil weed”.

This position brought Garvey into conflict with those who advocated and practiced the ritual, sacramental use of ganja, as well as with those who traded in it. And who were those that practiced the ritual use of Marijuana in Jamaica at that time but Rastafari? Those who traded in Cannabis on a huge “commercial”, scale at that time in Jamaica were the wealthy, merchant and some in the planter class, there is evidence that persons in the highest echelons of government, including the police force and the army were all engaged in the trafficking of Cannabis.

The historical record with a view to what was written in newspaper periodicals by Marcus Garvey concerning Rastafari is nothing short of scathing denunciations and the like. That Rastafari today hail him as their prophet is their prerogative my duty is to present the facts with that thought in mind I will present a few more. Another article in the New Jamaican (Marcus Garvey’s newspaper), written by Garvey reported the following; “There is good and there is bad in religion. Some religions are foolish, and we have a

lot of them in Jamaica. We have religion here that is running the people crazy.

In different sections of our city, and for that matter, on the island, scheming and

wicked persons are promoting all kinds of fanatical religions, and they are finding fertile fields among the unfortunate and ignorant people.” Garvey referenced the Revivalist’s in the article, the Pocamaniacs and the Rastafari. Lewis in his analyses cites Barry Chevannes which is instructive to reiterate herein; “These elements, as Chevannes and others have pointed out, were all present in early Rastafari. That was a different phase of the movement, and as such, it is necessary to distinguish among the Howellites, the old

supporters of Bedward, the revivalists who became Rasta and initiated a campaign to recognize Haile Selassie as God, and the latter-day Rastafarian movement that

gained international currency with the music of Bob Marley, Peter Tosh, and Bunny Wailer. Garvey knew the Howellites, the Bedwardites, and the anticolonial milieu,

and with these Jamaicans he dialogued. It is the latter-day Rastafarians, however, who, through reggae, have canonized Garvey and become the most active force in Jamaica for perpetuating aspects of Garvey’s philosophy.

Burning Spear was one of the earliest and still is the most persistent of the “Garveyite” Reggae-Rasta lyricists”. I have not included some of the more scathing quotes from Garveyites concerning Leonard Howell, as some of them can be deemed as slander and libel particularly his alleged “Obeah”, practices, in their defense though and this was referenced in Robert Hill’s book (Dread History), Howell did claim to be a student of Hindu occultism.

The bible was held in high esteem, anyone familiar with scripture was honored by poor blacks of the time. Garvey was no exception he was shrewd, he knew how to, collectively mobilize people for mass action. Garvey never prophesied of the coronation of Haile Sellassie, a scriptural quote is not a prophesy.

The Rastafari took Garveys scriptural quotation of psalms 68: 31; “Princes shall come out of Egypt; Ethiopia shall soon stretch out her hands unto God,” as direct prophetic fulfillment in the crowning of Haile Sellassie.

I will now deal with a very troubling development, in a certain type of literature that has been developed, but which will not remain unchallenged.

The type of literature I am alluding to is that which has been created by white writers and journalists, pandering to what they consider to be their humanist side, what it truly is; is

Arrogance and an economic niche that they have created for themselves, wherein they have been able to generate exorbitant sums of money pandering to the type of readership that they cater to.

Within this type of literature, there exists much hypocrisy, I will touch lightly on the subject, and it is with indignation that I write when I deal with their outright blatant attempt, to minimize, and diminish the accomplishments and contributions, that Marcus Garvey made to the Black man globally.  I am aware of quite a few people, whose lives changed for the better after reading Garveys work; the statements made by, this white Journalist will not go unchallenged in this work. An even worse type of literature purporting to be “Christian”, is being written on Rastafari by certain mainly North American evangelical’s and charismatics, that shows the ignorance and lack of investigation that went into preparing the material. I will examine here one such writer Paula A. Price, Ph.D. her book is entitled: “The Prophet’s Dictionary: The ultimate Guide to Supernatural Wisdom”. On page 181 she purports to be writing on Rastafari, quotes from her book will reveal the absolute lack of knowledge that this writer a Ph.D. holder no less, has pertinent to Rastafari. The writer does not cite any sources when writing about a subject, presumably she believes her own hype, that she is the “ultimate”, authority on supernatural wisdom. The following are her own words quoted from page 181 414: “dreadlocks – A long shaggy hairstyle worn by followers of Prince Ras Tafari of Jamaica. He was the foundation of the Rastafarian religion founded by Marcus Garvey. The hairstyle is worn in obeisance to his belief in himself as the incarnate messiah and as such his being the lion of the tribe of Judah. The loose, flowing hair is to emulate the mane of a lion who is venerated for its power, prowess, and hunting skill. The lion as the king of the jungle is the means by which this religion celebrates their cult”. When I read this woman’s elucidation on Rastafari I was eager to include it herein as an example that the readers could themselves compare with the account given by me in this book of the coronation of Haile Sellassie his titles and their spiritual and historical context, here is a perfect example of exactly the type of writer this work opposes and exposes as fraudulent pseudo-scholars. I went to the section in her book entitled: About The Author on page 601 of her book, I will briefly quote from her book what she is about. “Paula A. Price is vastly becoming the international voice on the subject of apostolic and prophetic ministry she is widely recognized as a modern day (apostle) with a potent anointing”. Rarely have I seen such ignorance and arrogance displayed in one setting as with this pseudo-apostle. Now I will begin to deconstruct her fallacious presentation of Rastafari. Tafari as this book has shown from documented evidence was the pre-coronation familial name of the Ethiopian emperor Haile Sellassie, Ras was a title designating him as a prince or a ruler of one or more provinces. Price claims that Sellassie was a Jamaican, (her lack of respect for the subject she claims to be writing about is glaringly illuminated in her referring to Haile Sellassie an Ethiopian emperor, as a Jamaican since when did the colonial system of Jamaica ever had an emperor?), who viewed himself as messiah. Nothing could be farther from the truth, when Price claims in her book that Haile Sellassie viewed himself as a messiah, that is not only outright ignorance it is a boldfaced lie! “The lion as king of the jungle”, these are the ranting’s of a barely concealed racist mentality, couched as “Christian”, writing of the type of garbage exposed above, gives any writing that is truly Apostolic a bad name, notwithstanding the god ordained precept that no woman can attain to the “office” of an Apostle, in the Full Body Ministry of Jesus The Messiah of the Ages, exposing Price as a fraud. Price and her ilk are part of the Christian Industrial Complex forged in charismaticism, with their pseudo-Christian belief in the “Trinity”, which is a concept that this book has shown, was born in witchcraft. I have taken pains to deconstruct lies and misperceptions pertaining to Caribbean people in general in this book and Rastafari in particular, as a means of presenting as balanced and objective a picture, as I possibly could. I know it is impossible to satisfy everyone, yet still I have attempted to present as much factually verifiable data, on all the subjects handled in this book including Rastafari. If a “writer”, is not possessed of even the most fundamental respect, for his or her subject then why bother to write about it. If one must descend to lies and subterfuge, why bother? Any honest writer with the barest of dignity will do well, to afford their subject with the same dignity that they would prefer for themselves had the roles been reversed. The so called West Indies have produced many great leaders with Marcus Mosiah Garvey not being the least of them, Caribbean people have been clamoring for true independence since, they learnt what ‘nation building” truly entail The term independence in this work does not only refer to political autonomy or a semi-independent political status, as is the case regionally. The term independence here refers to the ability of a nation to perpetuate its civilization throughout millennia using the means of the political process, the educational, as well as the religious institutions, cultural and technological wealth of its people. Independence herein also encompasses national identity as well as a constitution which guarantees the rights of all citizens by law, within said constitution the rights of the citizens and the sovereignty of their nation is sacrosanct, the democratic system being the one system in said constitution that will be utilized to safeguard and protect said rights. If the reality of true independence in the Caribbean context were to be examined however briefly and minutely in this work I will like to make mention of the ideological fathers of said movement in the region.

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Image: The Jamaican-born Marcus Mosiah Garvey, the protégé of the Sint Thomas native Edward Wilmot Blyden.

Through the Freedom of Information Act, the widow of Garvey Amy Jacques Garvey was able to procure formerly confidential FBI documents and also the actual transcripts of the court proceedings that led to the illegal conviction of Marcus Garvey.

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Marcus Garvey was influenced by his own admission by one Edward Wilmot Blyden.

Blyden was a native of the B.V.I.A who traveled to Africa as a missionary (Timothy White erroneously claimed that Blyden was a Liberian).

Many people will try to falsify history and reduce Garvey to a narrow paradigm , exclusive to Jamaica his significance transcends geographic boundaries, he was truly a world citizen, his teaching was universal the aspects of  “Garveyism” that are separatist and racist his concept of race “purity”, is rank racism and “nationalism”, I reject outright and condemn that aspect of his teaching the other aspects of Garveyism that are conducive to my wholesome development I can consume the rest I discard as unacceptable for my “consumption”.

Garvey was a product of the type of thinking being developed amongst African descendants in the West at that time.

The global universe of education produced Garvey, Blyden, George Padmore, C.L.R. James and later Malcolm X and Martin Luther King J.R.

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Image: Edward Wilmot Blyden ideological father of Marcus Mosiah Garvey.

These men were not mere soapbox orators they literally shaped the world and influenced generations of the earth’s populace.

Marcus Garvey.

In Photo Marcus Garvey and his wife Amy Jacques Garvey.

 

Although men like C.L.R. James were Marxist’s they still shaped much of what is termed “Black Literature” today. For this reason I have stated apostolic people cannot honour anyone whether they are black or white simply on the basis of their status as a “pop icon”, pop culture is not limited to music. ‘Popular culture” denotes all accepted art forms that have made a significant impact in what is considered an acceptable or professional standard.

Often when one hears about Pan- Africanism, the name that usually comes to mind is Marcus Mosiah Garvey, yet Garvey was in fact a student of Edward Wilmot Blyden. Blyden was a Sint Thomas native who wanted to be a missionary; he later changed his course of thinking and dedicated himself to a lifelong struggle of African liberation. The Caribbean gave to the world many great intellectuals and thinkers I will like to mention a few here, Frantz Fanon (who was a doctor and fought himself literally to death in a war of liberation in Algeria), Cesaire, George Padmore who was advisor to Kwame Nkrumah the president of Ghana on African affairs, C.LR James, and many others. The program that the UNIA, the organization headed by Garvey is worthy of mention here, as it embodies a vision and insight far beyond its time and is even more progressive and relevant than any program enacted by any Western power on the planet today as pertains to the African in the Diaspora in their midst. Even the independent countries in the Caribbean and Africa cannot boast of the most basic application of anything even vaguely reminiscent of what Garvey’s UNIA advocated as a means of mass social uplift. Iam not mentioning this simply as a means of lauding the insight and vision of the UNIA, Iam attempting to show the relevance of such a program even for the African in the Diaspora today and how government can be used as a tool for social reformation, mass education and social uplift rather than the present dismal and apathetic state of affairs.

The aims of the Universal Negro Improvement Association were and still are:

1: To establish a universal confraternity among the race.

2: To promote the spirit of race pride and love.

3:  To reclaim the fallen of the race.

4:  To administer the imperialism of independent Africa.

5:  To establish Universities, Colleges and Secondary Schools to further education and culture of the boys and girls of the race.

6: To conduct worldwide commercial and industrial intercourse.

There were also local Jamaican objectives, which were ipsi facto Caribbean objectives.

 

1: To rescue the fallen women of the island from the pit of vice and infamy.

2: To do all that is possible to help the struggling masses to a higher state of moral appreciation.

3: To help generally in the development of the country.

 

The points and objectives mentioned above were not exclusive to Garvey or the UNIA but were and are part of the total objective of nation building in and of itself.

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Men like Garvey and C.L.R James understood that in order for them to b effective leaders of the African in the Diaspora they would have to interpret these principles from out of his experience and reality, C.L.R James however and his peers , transcended the role of simply “Black Leaders”, James never presented himself as such he was a truly universal leader and it is this type of leader who is in fact the most effective, therefore while Garvey has his place men like James must also be given their place in history, this work tries to draw the oft difficult balance between the varying types of leaders without attempting to diminish one and to falsely promote another . Some of the men mentioned above enjoyed stellar success in their chosen areas of endeavor, George Padmore is worthy of mention here, in The Pan-African Connection Tony Martin wrote: “Padmore was born in Trinidad in 1902 and attended universities in the United States from 1924-1929. During this period he enjoyed meteoric success in the Communist Party of the USA. In 1933 he broke with Moscow and with Communism but not with Marxism. From 1957-1959 he served as advisor on African affairs to President Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana. He died in the latter year. And in the words of his biographer, “It only remained for the Ghanaians to institutionalize him, which they quickly did”.  Tony Martin in his “The Pan African Connection”  wrote about another Caribbean man notably Frantz Fanon the Martinique born revolutionary: “but my most vivid recollection from that night was the frequency and reverence with which Carmichael quoted Fanon. The deference accorded to Fanon by this outstanding revolutionary of our time was the deference which some men pay to the quotations of Jesus Christ and others to Mao Tse Tung or Karl Marx”. Of course by mentioning Jesus Christ in the same sentence as Mao and Marx, in the same vein, as the aforementioned persons Martin cleverly attempts to reduce Jesus to a mere “leader”, which he most certainly was much more than a great leader, later in this work Jesus will be examined from a biblical perspective. Aimé Césair Fanon’s friend wrote that: “Fanon probably soared to such heights and was possessed of so wide a horizon because he was a West Indian, meaning that he started from so lowly and narrow a basis. Maybe it was necessary to be West Indian, that is to be so destitute, so depersonalized, in order to go forth with such ardour to the conquest of oneself and of plenitude; West Indian, this is to say, so mystified in the beginning as to finally be able to expose the most secret motives of mystification, and with such mastery, finally, West Indian to be capable of so forcefully escaping from impotency by action, and solitude by fraternity”. (From Césair’s Homage 1962).

I will like to elucidate on one Cyril Lionel James (1901-1989) as he was literally a giant and an internationally renowned and respected world scholar, political theorist, philosopher, literary, critic and Pan-Africanist. James was a world figure who advocated African self-government, and West Indian or Caribbean self-government. The reason for the expose on James is many fold one of the chiefest being he is not read in any major university in the Caribbean and he has been totally omitted from most historical studies in the region on Caribbean history how can one omit so crucial a man to the very development of “Caribbean History”, as a subject in cultural studies is yet a mystery. In this work he will be given his just due James was born in Trinidad his father was a schoolteacher his mother an educated woman. James worked as teacher for a time on Trinidad he completed a novel Minty Alley published in 1936 the book was about the life of the lower classes. In England he became an “enigmatic phenomena” he published several works worth mentioning here “The Case for West Indian Self-Government”, “World Revolution 1919-1936: The Rise and fall of the Comintern” (this was of course a Marxist work). He also authored “The Black Jacobins: Toussaint L’Ouverture and the San Domingo Revolution”. His play “Toussaint L’Ouverture” London premiere starred his friend Paul Robeson who was influenced by James. James completed a noted major philosophical study entitled “Notes on Dialectics”; a literary critical study of Melville, Mariners Renegades, and Castaways; and several collaborative works on world politics. In 1962 in London James published; “Beyond a Boundary: an historical study of Cricket”. James influenced greatly such writers as Vincent Harding, Manning Marable, Edward Said, Stuart Hall, Walter Rodney, and Sylvia Winter. Scholars place him among the founders of cultural studies as well as “black studies” with the overwhelming evidence of this man’s greatness in America and especially England the country of Trinidad in particular is in fact contributing to its own demise by not highlighting this giant of the twentieth century, Caribbean educational institutions are a farce until they all collectively embrace and acknowledge this man who was in fact the intellectual dynamo that gave them voice it was because of his work that they now exist how can one ignore one’s “creator”?Stokely Carmichael was a Trinidad born revolutionary who was greatly influenced by Fanon and he most definitely would have read of and was well aware of James and his many contributions it is simply a crime that education is being conducted in the Caribbean without acknowledging the very persons that made it possible for “true education” to exist in the region or are we to think that the so called independent governments are yet forwarding a colonial agenda by deliberately miseducating their countries youth. The Caribbean Pan-Africanist has influenced global Pan-Africanism to an extent not yet appreciated nor understood by the academicians in the region. Marcus Garvey one of the most prolific of these thinkers and certainly the greatest organizer amongst them popularized what many were already writing about and agitating for Garvey in fact wrote about a “West Indian Federation”and laid down the blueprint for its attainment. What Garvey and many others articulated was simply Caribbean nationalism and African Nationalism across the board. The European has created his brand of nationalism in the European Union; all of Europe is in fact governments built out of the nationalist ideal a study of European history will attest to this fact. The British Labor party was conceived out of the Fabian Society in 1893.In 1906 the party was given its present name George Bernard Shaw and Annie Besant were two of the more famous members of the Fabian society. Anyone familiar with the literary works of Annie Besant might be surprised to find out that she is one of the persons who molded what we refer to as socialism. The Europeans themselves acknowledge that socialism is in fact a child of Marxism. Have they discarded the socialist model because Karl Marx helped write the Communist Manifesto? No they simply evolved Marxian theory to reflect their present reality out of such the British Labor Party of which Tony Blair was a very prominent member was born. Why have I brought this point to the fore? The Caribbean has for years sought to create a certain amount of cohesive hegemony. The Caricom is concrete proof of such the ineffectiveness of the Caricom is as a result of there being an absence of a Caribbean identity forged in nationalism, the cricket cup is a sport it is not a nationalistic symbol although if correctly used it can become a unifying symbolic event. The tendency of the leadership in the region to form their ideology based on Eurocentric values is an Achilles heel that will continue to cripple them. Pan-Africanism in the Caribbean context can be correctly termed Pan-Caribbeanism can a cohesive ideology be developed out of Pan-Africanism beneficial to a Federated Caribbean? I think this can be achieved no true Caribbean intellectual can claim to be a “Caribbean” intellectual without having been influenced by the likes of Garvey, Fanon, Aimee  Césair, Blyden and the many other thinkers to have sprung from the region.

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Image: Some Caribbean islands including the lesser and Greater Antilles. Martinique, Guadeloupe and French Sint Martin were called the French Antilles, with Sint Maarten, Curacao, Aruba, Bonaire, Saba and Sint Eustatia comprising the Dutch Antilles. Frantz Fanon the Martiniquan Doctor, revolutionary, author, Marxist and Antillean. Carlos Cooks was an Antillean. Maurice Bishop though a Grenadian by parentage was born on Aruba and attended school for a period of time there. Athyli Rogers author of the “Rastafari bible”, the ‘Holy Piby, was an Anguillan, though Anguilla is not an Antillean island, Anguillans and Sint Maarteners are related by blood ties and share a common heritage. Edward Wilmot Blyden the man whose world renowned protégé Marcus Garvey, is heralded by most Pan-Africanist’s as the father of their ideology, is a virtual unknown in so called “black studies” literature. Most writers writing about the Pan-Caribbean Pan-African experience tend to focus on Jamaicans and Africans conveniently omitting the fact that the actual Pan-Caribbean, Pan-Africanist movement started in the smaller islands and not in Jamaica. The movement was begun by people like Edward Blyden and others even before him. George Padmore and C.L.R James are rarely ever written about but they are in fact intrinsic to any honest analysis of the Pan-Caribbean and Pan-Africanist movement in the world today. This book though not a Pan African nor a Pan Caribbean work, yet gives due credence to the greats in the aforementioned since, without their efforts a work such as this would indeed be lacking substance in certain areas.

 

There are many black Marxists and Communists some like Harry Belafonte are revered by people who call themselves Christian, how can you claim Christ and revere and honor someone who is diametrically opposed to all that you claim to stand for?

The mistake of black people identifying with anyone “popular” who looks like them is an example of a negative cultural characteristic that apostolic people must avoid.

I identify more with a Chinese or Japanese who is truly saved than with any black man or woman who is not, skin color is not the basis for my allegiance, another person’s allegiance to Jesus forms the basis of my allegiance to that person regardless of race, color, or creed.

Malcolm X’ impact transcends the so-called African American Malcolm X is revered by many Muslim youth from Morocco and throughout much of Muslim Africa, particularly in the Sudan and outside of the Muslim community. In Africa he is honored by many on the continent and throughout the Western hemisphere.

The significance of these people and their life’s work was mentioned in order to illustrate how these persons influenced and shaped the thinking of Caribbean people.

In her book The First Rasta Helen Lee claims, that Marcus Garvey was agitating for integration, how a supposedly informed individual could make such a claim, can mean only one thing, Lee who is obviously enamored with Howell; was pandering to certain sentiments and sensibilities of the type of readership that she caters to.

After his release from prison on trumped up charges Marcus Garvey was deported to Jamaica in 1928, where he resumed his activities on behalf of Africans everywhere.

He was politically active in Jamaica where he ran for a seat on the city council while he was in prison, he won by an overwhelming margin.

Lee’ attempt at diminishing the impact and influence of Marcus Garvey on the development of African civilization in the Diaspora is exposed in this work for what it is, a specious attempt at misinformation. The historical records clearly show that, Garvey was deported back to Jamaica he later left for England, where he died in 1940. By creating the false notion that Garvey never returned to Jamaica but was somehow sent to England, is a deliberate and malicious attempt, by this white journalist, claiming to identify so greatly with the Rastafari, that even within the obvious suicidal behavior of Athlyi (“Roger Athlyi” writer of the Holy Piby i.e. the Rastafari bible). Lee attempted to make Athlyi some sort of hero. Athlyi killed himself plain and simple; no amount of misplaced pandering to misdirected sensibilities can change that.

The likes of Athlyi was not and have never been a great influence on black people globally Athlyi’ marginal influence is limited to the few followers he had in his heyday, likewise Leonard Howell. Marcus Mosiah Garvey on the other hand influenced black intellectuals globally and he still does so today from politicians and preachers to university students to street hustlers Garveyism has had an enduring impact on the world that no human being can diminish nor deny.

The ideology that Garvey espoused, led to many African leaders, such as Kwame Nkrumah, and Jomo Kenyatta just to mention two very famous leaders, who openly called themselves Pan-Africanists after the ideology developed by Marcus Mosiah Garvey. The ideology called Garveyism, led to these men formulating the methods, and means that they would later utilize to bring about the independence of their respective countries.  That they failed to follow in the Pan-African tradition after having achieved independence is no reflection on Garveyism at all, but rather it is a reflection on the men as human beings.

Today both the JLP and the PNP of Jamaica are vying for the right to call themselves the ideological successors of Marcus Garvey; fortunately for Garvey history will show that he was not a socialist. Garvey believed firmly in the democratic ideal, and capitalism, in fact was his preferred economic model.

Both the JLP and PNP are socialistic in their rhetoric, in practice they are decidedly autocratic, and absolutist in their governing styles bordering on oligarchies.  The very fact that these parties are now vying for the right to call Marcus Garvey, the father of their political ideology, points to his universal acceptance that has in fact forced the political hierarchy in his homeland, to want to adopt him as father of their various movements.

Pan-Africanists, the Rastafari, students of the enlightened variety both white and black

have long accepted and understood the universal truths espoused by Marcus Garvey; however his separatist rhetoric, has been and rightly should be avoided by most. The applicability of his political program, as pertains to the betterment, of the condition of the African in the Diaspora, should be championed by any truly enlightened Caribbean leader.

Caribbean people, do not need journalists, or academicians to define their reality; they can define their own reality.

On the point of the church’ role in the Caribbean; Lee attempts to portray the role of women, as substituting for the lack of men in said institutions.  The Jesus image, as created by Roman Catholicism is portrayed by Lee, as a psychological prop; unto which black Caribbean Christian women, project all of their pent up sexual emotions.

Lee in her attempt to describe the church services of some people, who may or may not be Christian, lumped Christianity with Pocomania/Pukumina, and other religious sects, like Obeah and Shango. In the spiritist practices above the adherents are said to become possessed by one of their many “deities”, demon spirits, who cause them to manifest a wide assortment of behavior, while persons who experience the real indwelling of the Holy Ghost are experiencing what was spoken of in Acts 2:38. Moreover the chief spirit of most of the cults mentioned, correspond to the “divine androgyne”, of ancient paganism, which has been identified as a symbol of Satan. For instance Obatala the chief deity of the Yoruba’s is a spirit manifesting both male and female characteristics , not unlike many of the other so called gods of the ancient and modern pagans examined in this book.

The Pentecostal movement is a fact worldwide; many people around the world grew up in the Pentecostal movement.

Lee erroneously claimed that speaking in tongues is akin to the “possession,” of the cults.

Speaking in tongues” has been observed all over the globe even among Europeans and Caucasians in America and Canada, accounts of such are to be found in newspaper articles and on video footage throughout the western hemisphere.

The attempt by some white writers to portray “speaking” in tongues as a “black phenomena”, limited to the uneducated and the ignorant is an example of their use of

their mastery of the written word to portray events in favor of the worldview that they espouse. This in the case of writers like Helen Lee and Timothy White is a decidedly pro-Rastafari worldview (of the Bob Marleyite variety).

While these writers can champion whatever worldview they want to ,their attempts at lumping the very real experience of the indwelling of the Holy Ghost, in “true Christians” with demon or spirit possession akin to the possession at a Voodoo ceremony, will be challenged in this work, as it is mere fantasy and conjecture on the part of two journalist’s attempting to explain away something that is experienced by people globally regardless of color or creed on a daily basis, as a purely “black” phenomena limited to a few backward peasants and women with a limited education nothing could be farther from the truth.

Since true Christianity is diametrically opposed to occultism, those of us who truly know what the “Full Body Ministry,” stands for can appreciate the paradox in the matter.

For one the truly Christian woman would consider such thoughts sacrilegious, and the so-called white Jesus image, even in Jamaican society is not revered by all, not in the early 20th century nor today.

There has been and still are in the region churches that emphatically teach an anti-Eurocentric doctrine, there are many church institutions regionally who do not encourage the veneration of any imagery period taken from Roman Catholicism, even the pagan Christmas is not venerated nor celebrated by Apostolic people in the Caribbean nor around the globe.

The weak attempt of a white woman to define the experience of the African in the Diaspora failed, as all such attempts must fail, by dint of the fact that; the African in the Diaspora is far more complicated, and sophisticated than any one from outside said group, presuming to be able to precisely analyze an entire group of people will ever be able to fathom.