Category Archives: History

Africa in the Bible: Continued from The Garden of Eden in the Bible.

Image: A map of Nubia showing Sudan, the White Nile, and the Blue Nile splitting in Khartoum in Sudan, called Havilah in the bible.


Images: A Nuba man and a Ba-Twa man or what western academia has called a pygmy, (at the right of this page).There are on the continent  African people in Nubia known as the Nuba.

Image: Ptah the Egyptian god who according to the myth was a Batwa, ―pygmy i.e. a black African.

Image: A Nuba village, in Sudan.
Africans were already using the term Nubian in ancient times as a term of designation of a distinct, highly developed social, political, religious, and cultural ethnic group in the area in question, before European contact.The Arab and Berber did not exist at the primacy of the development of Nubian civilization.Berbers according to the Encarta are themselves an Arabized people, how then can an assimilated primitive culture formed after the Nubian which was a supra-civilization, be credited with having fathered the modern inhabitants of Nubia? The utter absurdity in the matter defies common sense! Scholars still use terms such as Hamitic, Japhetic, and Semitic as terms of designation for the various people groups on the planet.The terms are in fact derived from the bible they are the names of the three sons of Noah namely, Ham, Shem, and Japheth. Ham fathered the African nations most notable of which are Kush (Ethiopia, Somalia, and Eritrea), Mitsrayim (Egypt), and Phut=Punt (Nubia), Nimrod (Babylon), et al. Shem fathered certain notables such as Asshur (Assyria), Elam, Aram, and Arphaxad, out of these came the so-called Semites along with their languages.

The book above left by Mircea Eliade is a revelation on the face of it, no pun intended. In the very title of the book, the nature of Shamanism is revealed: ―Archaic Techniques of Ecstacy‖.

Above Sheshat goddess of record-keeping and measurement in ancient Kemet, on her head is the Cannabis leaf.

In the section on ―Races of Mankind‖, the most ridiculous outright racist and bigoted not to mention purely fictional designations for ―ethnicity, is invented. The pseudo-scientifical drivel in the ―atlas will be handled here in brief. Ethiopians are referred to in the book mentioned above as being of White stock, Somalians, Nubians, are also referred to as ―White‖ or Caucasians. I quote from the book is justified here: ―The Hamites, who inhabit North and Northeast Africa belong to the Caucasian branch of mankind, even Tuaregs are made into ―Hamites, a fictional ―race. The bust‘s above of the persons referred to as being of ―white stock are all Africans, yet because of there having been discovered evidence of the people‘s referred to as white having developed, high cultures anciently, the racist Caucasian pseudo-scholar in a failed attempt to make all high-cultures ―white‖, created three primary fictional ―races and called them Hamites, Semites and Japhetites. On the other hand, the same Caucasian Ham is blackened by the so-called scholars of the type above when it suits their needs.The entire body of literature of the type described previously is simply too, mind-boggling and moronic for me to dedicate much space to its insane claims, I will suffice it to quote from the esteemed Sudanese scholar Cheikh Anta Diop (Diop was the director of the radiocarbon laboratory at I.F.A.N. at the University of Dakar, Senegal): ‗ What we cannot possibly understand is how it has been possible to make a white race of Kemet: Hamite, black, ebony, etc. Obviously, according to the needs of the cause Ham is cursed, blackened, and made into the ancestor of the ―Negroes‘. This is what happens whenever one refers to contemporary social relations. On the other hand, he is whitened whenever one seeks the origin of civilization because there he is inhabiting the first civilized country in the world. So the idea of eastern and western Hamites is conceived-nothing more than a convenient invention to deprive Blacks of the moral advantage of Egyptian civilization and other African civilizations. It is impossible to link the notion of Hamite, as we labor to understand it in official textbooks, with the slightest historical, geographical, linguistic, or ethnic reality. No specialist is able to pinpoint the birthplace of the Hamites, (scientifically speaking), the language they spoke, the migratory route they followed, the countries they settled, or the form of civilization they may have left. On the contrary, all the experts agree that this term has no serious content, and yet not one of them fails to use it as some kind of master-key to explain the slightest evidence of civilization in Black African.

The first image above is a statue unearthed in Egypt, underneath it is a Somalian man, designated as a Caucasian by white racists posing as scholars, last is an Egyptian carving depicting a man. The statue and carving both bear striking resemblances to the man in the middle, both in hairstyle and skin texture, the carving is clearly ―African by its hair texture which is so-called ―Pepper Corn. The full lips and dark skin color of the Somalian clearly identify him as an African, yet buffoons claiming to be scholars have made him white in order to claim for themselves the distinction of being ―the founders of civilization.

Figure: The Scarab or Dung Beetle representing Kephera. In some instances red rubies are encrusted in the object we know that the more ornate designs were made for royalty or High Priests. Also one important fact that must be taken into account in anciency the continent of Alkebulan was still joined to the other countries of the so-called Middle East all of whom were satellites of the Nubians. One must bear in mind that there was no Aswan Dam.The name of the third river is Hiddekel it states that it went towards the east of Assyria, and the fourth river is the Euphrates.
Part three of this series will focus on the Dogon tribe and their extraordinary knowledge of Astronomy. How could so-called primitive people have advanced knowledge about the cosmos, and in particular Sirius the Dogstar, how could they without telescopes accurately map the stars and their paths for thousands of years? I will delve into all those questions from a biblical perspective, in the upcoming posts.

THE GARDEN OF EDEN IN THE BIBLE.

Copyrights Wade A. Bailey : Above a detailed map of the area located on the continent of Alkebulan aka Africa, detailing the biblical area of the Garden Of Eden. In Genesis 2:10, 11, 12.13,14,15 it is stated that two rivers went out of Eden one of the rivers Gihon (the Blue Nile), compassed or surrounded Ethiopia.

A painting of Adam and Eve. Property of Dr Malachi York.

From the scriptural accounts, we can see that the Garden of Eden is to be found in the land of Ta-Merre i.e. Egypt [land of the Sun]. Many European scholars even some so called Christian scholars claim that the location of Eden is neither in Egypt nor even on the African continent citing a supposed mis-spelling in the King James Version of the Bible as pertains to the word Ethiopia in some accounts. They claim that in the original language the word was Kush which they attempt to link to Iran or Irak and even Turkey.


Sadly it is buffoons of the above mentioned ilk who are not true scholars but poseurs and miseducators who have for decade’s mis-written and falsely fashioned history and academic scholarship as per their racist pet theories and notions.
I will now provide factual evidence grounded in science and historically verifiable data as to the location of Eden.
There are two very preeminent and world renowned scholars of the ancient world namely Dr Cheik Anta Diop and Dr Joseph Ben Jochannan.
Both these scholars who functioned in their capacity are well travelled world lecturers and were both professors at major universities during the span of their careers.
I studied both of these men’ works to establish the scientific and archeological basis for the evidence I will bring forth.
If one were to conduct a study of the ancient world in pursuit of the location of the Garden of Eden one would have to start in anciency not in modernity.
The entire studied population of the earth is by now well aware that, the earliest man-like fossils were discovered in Africa by Louis Leakey and his wife. Based upon carbon dating and other scientific data we have empirical evidence that the human race originated on the so-called “African continent” which is in fact correctly called Alkebulan.
I will like to examine here certain bible passages taken from Genesis.
Genesis  chapter  2:10  “And a river went out of Eden to water the garden and from thence it was parted, and became into four heads.
From the above we can see that Eden was not a Garden but Eden was the name of a land mass precisely how large is not given, what it does state is that out of Eden flowed a river
That parted four ways and the following names are given for those four rivers.
Genesis 2:11 the name of the first is Pison“White Nile,” that is it which compasseth the whole land of Havilah, where there is Gold. Havilah is old Nubia from the word Nub which means gold. Some so-called modern scholars place Havilah in modern day Turkey.  How can one make such a claim seeing that Turkey was not known in ancient history or in modern times for being a land renowned for its vast gold  reserves.


The assertion that Iran or Iraq could have been the location for Havilah is also destroyed by the fact that although ancient Babylon was the site where today’s Iraq is located,
Babylon was in fact a satellite state of ancient Kemit misnomered Egypt by modern Euro-centric scholars. The fact that Nimrod mentioned in the bible as the great hunter before the lord was according to ancient as well as modern accounts none other than Osiris the Kemitian god of the underworld, we have evidence in history that attest to Nubian kings having conquered and subjugated the entire continent of Alkebulan so vast was their empire that there was an upper and a lower Egypt also the Nile river was identified as the Blue Nile and the White Nile, most Eurocentric scholars ignore these pertinent facts.
Babylon was a satellite state of Nubia by way of Kemit, and had vast Gold reserves is as a result of gold being brought to that region from our Kemit and Kush or Ethiopia which is rightfully called Punt.
These  evidences in ancient history points only to an African source, of much of the mineral wealth of the region.
Not only was the Nubian kingdom, which in fact penetrated even into Sudan on our modern map of Africa above Sudan just below the Blue Nile we have an area identified as Nubia.

Africans were already using the term Nubian in ancient times as a term of designation of a distinct, highly developed social, political,Religious and cultural ethnic group in the area in question. Before European contact. The Arab and Berber did not exist at the primacy of the development of Nubian civilization. Berbers according to the Encarta are themselves an Arabized people, how then can an assimilated primitive  culture  formed after the Nubian which were a supra-civilization,  be credited with having fathered the modern inhabitants of Nubia?  The utter absurdity in the matter defies common sense! Scholars still use terms such as Hamitic, Japhetic and Semitic as terms of designation for the various people groups on the planet.The terms are in fact derived from the bible they are the names of the three sons of Noah namely, Ham, Shem, and Japheth.  Ham fathered the African nations most notable of which are Kush (Ethiopia, Somalia and Eritrea), Mitsrayim (Egypt), and Phut=Punt (Nubia), Nimrod (Babylon) et al. Shem fathered certain notables such as Asshur (Assyria), Elam, Aram and Arphaxad, out of these came the so-called Semites along with their languages.

The Nubians who were a dark skinned thick-lipped people with wooly hair not unlike many of their surviving descendants today they are in fact the architects of what we call Egypt. These people founded the world’s first university at Timbuktu .It is to this region that all the European scholars traveled to become learned, in the ways of the “Medu Nechter” or the so-called Egyptian mystery system.  Onyx the other precious metal mentioned in the Genesis account was also greatly used in Kemit as a depiction of “Kephera” the so-called Scarab Beetle “Dung Beetle”, which is usually made from black Onyx and Gold.Also one important fact that must be taken into account in anciency the continent of Alkebulan was still joined to the other countries of the so called Middle East all of whom were satellites of the Nubians. One must bear in mind that there was no Aswan Dam. Io mention here  the names of the rivers mentioned in scripture in Genesis.The name of the third river is Hiddekelit states that it went towards the east of Assyria, and the fourth river is the Euphrates.All of the places mentioned were in ancient times still joined to the continent of Alkebulan Africa.Mesopotamia, [Greek- between two rivers], so named because of its strategic location between the Tigres and the Euphrates rivers.The land of Assyria takes its name from one of their ancient kings called Asshur.Ge:  10:11: Out of that, land went forth Asshur, and builded Nineveh, and the city Rehoboth, and Calah,Ge:  10:12: And Resen between Nineveh and Calah: the same is a great city.Ge:  10:13: And Mizraim begat Ludim, and Anamim, and Lehabim, and Naphtuhim,Ge:  10:14: And Pathrusim, and Casluhim, (out of whom came Philistim,) and Caphtorim.

In ancient history, we will read that Ur of the Chaldea where Abraham came from was, in fact, the conquerors of the Assyrians who were a satellite of Ur. Let us examine Ur, one of the most important cities of ancient Mesopotamia located on the Western Bank of the lower falls of the Euphrates River. Some very illuminating finds were unearthed in (Tel Muqayyir) modern Iraq. From the data thus far gathered we can see a pattern of development since Ishtar was the deity worshiped by the Assyrians who were a satellite at many points in the history of the Babylonians who were as per their own records descendants of Nimrod. The same Nimrod of the Bible, whose mother Serimaris or Astarte was called the Queen of Heaven, or the mother of Heaven. Serimaris and Nimrod correlate to Isis and Horus of the Kemitians (Egyptians).Also according to archeological evidence, Babylon is one of the first ancient civilizations it is also the place, where the two rivers the Tigris and the Euphrates meet. The Babylonian king called Hammurabi wrote the Code of Hammurabi or Laws of Hammurabi.

This post will be continued .

MILITARY GRADE WEAPONS THE NORM ON THE STREETS OF THE CARIBBEAN: HOW TERRORIST’S IN THE CARIBBEAN CAN WREAK HAVOC ON CIVILIANS AND SECURITY PERSONNEL.

St Peters-Sint Maarten: Yesterday on Trinidad (August 9, 2017,) officers of the Criminal Gang and Intelligence Unit (CGIU) the Southern Division and the Canine Branch, conducted an anti-crime exercise in Couva between 5 am and noon on Wednesday.

More than 800 rounds of ammunition and nine guns were found by police in Couva yesterday.

According to reports, officers of the Criminal Gang and Intelligence Unit (CGIU, the Southern Division and the Canine Branch conducted an anti-crime exercise in Couva between 5 am and noon on Wednesday.
Acting on a tip-off, the officers searched a busy area at Todd’s Road, Milton Village, Couva, and found nine guns, including a Russian-made assault rifle, a Remington rifle outfitted with a scope, an Uzi sub-machine gun and six pistols.

They also found over 800 rounds of assorted ammunition.
Police issued a press release yesterday that stated no arrests had been made in connection with the find, which was described as a major weapons and ammunition haul.

Take note of the extended clips for the pistols and remarkably two or a double drum magazine. Some drum magazines like the Beta C-Mag has a carrying capacity of a hundred rounds, the type of assault rifle shown above and an AK-47, (standard fare on the streets in the Caribbean), can fire up to 600 rounds a minute, an AR-15 another standard weapon for sale throughout the Caribbean on the street level, can fire 25 rounds in 2.5 seconds, with a single drum magazine or a double magazine like the ones shown above a single well trained terrorist like the ones returning from Iraq and Syria to the Caribbean, can wreak havoc on civilians as well a security personnel. The pandemic of gun crime throughout the Caribbean is a facilitator for terror strikes regionally, that can be more terrifying than our worst nightmare. Security organizations regionally have not announced any regional approach to the pending threat, much less a local one. Where are the OAS, OECS, and CARICOM in the face of this 21st-century threat to regional security?

THE HEBREW PEOPLE.

Taken from my book Shamanism as a Social Cultural Value System and its Antithesis Apostolic Culture.
In all ancient cultures including Judaism, we see mankind‘s quest to find Godman has within himself the intrinsic need and desire for love and acceptance by something or someone higher than himself.This intrinsic genetically encoded desire to be acknowledged and loved by a being higher than oneself has resulted in the promulgation of religions and religious dogma worldwide.All cultures and people from Africa to Europe have been known to have a culture of totemism or phallically deigned symbols that represented to them power or conquest.The ancient Hebrews were the only people who have in their history a recorded written account of a God that forbade idolatry whenever the Hebrew people bowed to the worship of inanimate objects God always followed this up with a punishment which usually resulted in the death of the idolaters.The Five Books of Moses or Torah is clear on the matter of what type of activity God considered sacrilegious and what was honorable.Examples of his commandments are the Ten Commandments handed down to Moses by YHVH.Some scholars claim that Moses plagiarized The Ten Commandments from the Egyptian book of the dead which contains 147 specific commandments ten of which though similar in tone are distinctly different from the Ten Commandments of the Torah.The first factor that must be considered here is that the ancient Egyptians were polytheist‘s they held a belief in a pantheon of deities. The most cited example of and matter of fact one very rare I might add is in the person of Akhenaton the pharaoh who spurned polytheism and revived one of their most ancient orders of worship which was the worship of the Aten or Atum the Sun God this though monotheistic does not in any way correlate with the Hebrew God YHVH and the Mosaic priesthood.There are marked ways in which the Egyptians honored their God Aten-Rah and the worship of YHVH was conducted.The ancient Hebrews worshipped a deity who revealed himself by the four Hebrew vowels YHVH I will be who I will be Yah Eye Asher Ehye.This name in and of itself is a mystery and a revelation I want to share a pearl gained through the study of the word of God please examine with me the Hebrew vowels for the name YHVH. Now let us examine together the Hebrew symbols/letters for the name Yeshua עשוהיIf you examine the macro dictionary that you got with this book, examine the first three symbols in the name YHVH they are the Yod He Vau, now examine the first three symbols in the name Yehoshua they are also Yod He Vau or in English Y, H and V here is a mystery revealed.The name Yeshua means the salvation of Yahweh if I were to spell the name Yeshua out as it was literally given it would look like the following YHVSHA; this is what it would look like.Bear in mind that Hebrew is written from right to left and not from left to right.The name Yeshua contains the most sacred name of God, Jesus‘ very name means God literally and symbolically this is what I meant when I said earlier on that he is a methodical God, and the language wherewith he chose to reveal his name is a divinely ordained language to show his character to man.God is unity oneness even in science we can see God if we split the H2o molecule we will get two Hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom when all three are joined there is a water molecule

Figure 33. A Water molecule or scientifically H2 O.This water molecule or the molecular structure of water shows how the water looks in its smallest parts.The Hebrew language is structured in exactly the same way meaning the language itself is mathematic it has a very deliberate mathematical structure.The Hebrew name of God and the name Yeshua are exactly like this molecule shown above without the atoms of oxygen and water coming together there is no water without the first three symbols of the Hebrew name of God and the Hebrew sh and a coming together there is no Yeshua.God is revealing the very union of his character in his name.The term trinity is an oxymoron that is very incompatible with the bible and the character of God.The father-son and Holy Ghost is one person that executes various functions.The Hebrews acknowledge only one God this is the reason a Trinitarian cannot bring the house of Israel to Christ only those with the revelation of who Jesus is can provoke the Jews to jealousy.Science can and has benefited humankind but in these last days, science will be the undoing of humankind.I use science to show Jesus again and again in defiance of the kingdom of Satan and man who will use science to confuse people as to the authenticity of scripture I use their methods against them in defense of the gospel.The worship of YHVH allowed animals to be sacrificed as atonement in blood to cover the sins of the house of Israel.The whole process was symbolic of the death of Jesus on the cross.Every feast in Judaism was symbolic of the coming of the messiah.
It is not necessary to prove him his own words prove him this work only function as a vehicle whose purpose is to expose falsehood and lies and introduce Jesus as the one true God, to introduce him in his messianic role and his final and supreme role as master and ruler of the universe.In this portion of the work, we will deal with a historical account of the Hebrew people.The conquest of Palestine marked the beginning of a settled life they were no longer a small nomadic group of people, they now had the opportunity to grow and expand their society.

Figure. Seal of Jeroboam Inscribed on the seal we have the following inscription ―Shema servant of Jeroboam.‖ It was found at Megiddo it refers to Jeroboam an Israelite King in the 19th century BCE.
Here we have concrete proof unearthed by Archeologist‘s proving the actual existence of a Hebrew king. There are many more archeological finds that attest to an actual Hebrew dynasty having existed. Evidence of the queen Jezebel having actually lived was recently unearthed in the year 2007 by archeologists.

Figure: Photo by British Museum EPA.


This is a photo of the so-called Cyrus Cylinder featured in an article in the Economist Magazine: on Apr 3rd, 2013, 15:35 by S.C.S. The cylinder is a surviving example of some issued by Cyrus following a thousand-year tradition of the Persians of that era, that entailed all nations enslaved by the Persians were free to return to their homelands and their gods, and shrines were to be returned to them. It is recorded in scripture that Jerimiah the prophet was one of the spiritual leaders of the Jews during the reign of Cyrus. Jeremiah also wrote of the event and the decree issued by Cyrus, Persia is modern-day Iran where the cylinder was found. During the reign of Cyrus Persia was a global superpower.The above-mentioned points actually contradict the claims of many that there never was a Hebrew people, and all Hebrew history and culture is simply a plagiarization of Kemitian culture. In future works, more evidence will be brought to the fore pertaining to the actual existence of the Hebrew people.


Jewish society became more complexed later in the period 973 B.C. a monarchy was established with Saul being the head of that government,1 Samuel the kingdom from that point on was ruled by a succession of kings who at times were despotic or righteous, the greatest of these rulers were David and Solomon under Solomon‘s reign the temple was built and the order of the Levitical priesthood took on another dimension sacrifices were no longer conducted in tents, called a tabernacle but were moved to the temple which was the original design of God.Later the northern tribe’s ten of which rebelled against the monarchy and established in (r.c. 933-912B.C.) the kingdom of Israel this kingdom under the rule of Omri (r.c.887-876 B.C.) this new kingdom experienced marked success and expanded into new territory (1 Kings 16:29-33).Omri, s son Ahab married Jezebel in 1 kings 16:28 the fate of Omri is described and the succession of his son is recorded. Ahab married Jezebel a Phoenician queen the daughter of Ethbaal king of the Zidonians.Ethbaal means man of Baal or son of Baal, the word Baal as was previously described, means lord. The word Jezebel means unmarried yet she was married to Ahab she bore the epithet, unmarried because she was a witch and as such, she was literally a bride of Satan.Jezebel was raised from her youth to marry into the Judahite tribe, why?Jezebel represented the spirit of Diana female counterpart of Lucifer therefore she was a Satanic plant to breed seed, in order that a seed of Satan would sit on the throne of David, in effect thwarting the plan of God that a messiah would one day sit on the throne of David, this is the reason the entire line of Ahab was annihilated from off the face of the earth, they were annihilated in order to rid the Davidic line of the serpent seed fathered by Ahab with the demon-infested queen Jezebel.Ahab and his wife were chiefly responsible for the spread of witchcraft amongst the Hebrews of that period.Jezebel’s father was not only a king but he was also a wizard of some advanced degree since everywhere he conquered he built temples and altars to his demon patron Baal.Jezebel was also called an enchantress, Devi or (Maha Deva) please note even so-called ―Christian ― gospel female artists refer to themselves asDeva, s when a Deva is a male Hindu demon the Devi or Maha Deva is his female counterpart she is also called siren or seductress.One aspect of her craft failed when she attempted to distract Jehu through the means of seduction she was thrown from the window at Jehu, s command by the eunuchs.Jezebel who was the daughter of Ethbaal also pursued a course of spreading the paganism of her father.This period marked the slow decline of the monarchy of the Jews under paganism their kingdom declined.The Jews because of paganism were subjugated and colonized by the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar Daniel 1:1, 21 in 579 B.C. The city of Jerusalem was destroyed by the Babylonians the most educated and noble of the country were taken captive by the Babylonians and lived in exile in Babylon (586 B.C.).The Babylonians were conquered by the Persians ―Persia is modern Iran‖Under Cyrus, in 539 B.C. Jeremiah 5:1 to 37 Daniel 5:5-25-28, Ezekiel1:5, 6.The period after the Persian conquest is called the Hellenistic period as the majority of the earth came under the authority of the armies of Alexander the Great.In 168 B.C., Antiochus the fifth began a campaign of suppression against Judaism.

This period is called the Maccabean revolt so called because it was led by a man called Judas Maccabeus (160 B.C.).In 163 B.C. Palestine fell under Roman domination Palestine was ruled for centuries by the Roman Empire.Under Roman domination, the Jewish people searched their religious documents and new literature was developed amongst them are the Apocryphal works and the Pseudepigrapha.This period also saw the proliferation of various sects the Essenes, Zealots, Pharisees, and Sadducees all abounded and had their own peculiar doctrines they were all legalists and believed that salvation could be attained by good works.It was into this admixture of political and religious upheaval that Jesus The Messiah of the Ages stepped. He preached a doctrine of grace and not works, declaring that mankind could only find eternal peace in his name, not through works he was rejected and denounced as a blasphemer and heretic, he was then crucified.Today Ultra-Orthodox Jews are still waiting for Messiah many cults have established their own version of Messiah all these events must occur as it was already prophesied that it would be so.The modern development of the state of Israel had its roots in Zionism the ―Yishuv‖ the Jewish community in Palestine experienced growth due to the rise of Nazism in Europe and anti-Semitism elsewhere in Europe led to anAccelerated Jewish immigration to Palestine in the 1930,s this development and the strong economic growth and Jewish community strength were a cause for concern amongst some in the Arab community.At this point in their history, the Jewish people were supported by Great Britain.England supported the Jews but also sought, a ―white Paper‖, this document was an official statement of policy, it reduced the support of Great Britain for a Jewish National home in Palestine.

In 1942 amid growing European hostility to the Jews in Europe, the Jews in Palestine openly stated that their aim was to develop an independent Jewish state in Palestine.The murder of over some six million Jews in Germany under the Third Reich of Adolph Hitler who was aided by scientists and educators in carrying out his Satan-inspired scheme mass murder of the Jews. The racist Dogma of Darwinian Theory is what Hitler built his empire on; these same dogmatic theories, are still being taught, in schools today.Here then is Hitler in his own words: ―It is idle to argue which race or races were the original representative of human culture and hence the real founders of all that we sum up under the word ‘humanity.’ It is simpler to raise this question with regard to the present, and here an easy, clear answer results. All the human culture, all the results of art, science, and technology that we see before us today, are almost exclusively the creative product of the Aryan. This very fact admits,to the not unfounded inference, that he alone was the founder of all higher humanity, therefore representing the prototype of all that we understand by the word ―man‖. He is the Prometheus of mankind, from whose bright forehead the divine spark of genius has sprung at all times, forever kindling anew that fire of knowledge which illumined the night of silent mysteries and thus caused the man to climb the path to mastery over the other beings of this earth. Exclude him-and perhaps after a few thousand years darkness will again descend on the earth, human culture will pass, and the world turns to a desert‖. The type of thinking espoused in the preceding, of course, has been refuted in this book over and over in the times that we live in and in anciency, countless ethnicities other than Aryans have contributed to the overall advancement of the human race, in every sphere of development.

Hitler’s speech is markedly Luciferian, his allusion to Prometheus the Hellenic Lucifer is remarkable in that he equates the Euro-Aryan as the progenitor of mankind, the fact that science has proven human life originated on the African continent shatters the fantasies of buffoons of Hitler’s ilk both modern and ancient. The Hellenic Lucifer as the father of the Caucasian people‘s is taken from the Kabbalistic Adam Kadmon, as the primal man, Hitler simply spun the myth to jibe with his ―Master Race‖ mythology. The Grand Council of Knights, consisted of Himmler and twelve senior SS Generals, modeled after the hierarchy of a witches coven. There can be little doubt that Hitler and his top SS generals were involved in satanic rituals since everything from their chosen symbolism to the rituals they practiced were modeled after ancient Germanic and Satanist rites.As a result of the widespread Jewish repression and mass extermination of and murder of Jews in Europe, Jews began a mass exodus from Europe into Palestine. Between 1933 and 1939 about 235,000 Jews immigrated to Palestine legally, and thousands more came by illegal means, doubling the size of the Jewish Yeshuv. The terrorist Jewish organizations Irgun Zvai Leumi (National Military Organization) and the Lehi (the Stern gang), named after its founder, were the military instruments that made it possible for the Jews to control Palestine. One of the more memorable terrorist attacks by Jewish terrorists was the Camp David hotel bombing.In 1947, the British-led Jewish Palestinian negotiations broke down.

The matter was placed before the U.N. general assembly, it was decided that the British mandate over Palestine would be terminated. The country was partitioned into two states one Jewish one Arab on November 29, 1947, in the general assembly.On May 14, 1948, the state of Israel was declared. David Ben Gurion becamePrime minister and D.R. Chaim Weizmann was president of the state council.Since that time, until today the state of Israel has experienced a great deal of war‘s and conflict with their Palestinian neighbors, this state of the constant conflict began with Isaac and Ishmael. Ishmael is the father of the Arab nations and the brother of Isaac. The Arabs and their worldview of Islam are ideologically on a headlong collision course with world Jewry and particularly Zionism. The Jewish people not all, but many, believe that Palestine is their birthright, the Bible contains in its scriptures evidence that supports this.

Above the flag of the Sovereign State of Israel.

Arab Muslims are equally ―a people of promise‖, through their ancestors Ishmael, Esau, and Abraham. In Genesis Chapter 15:18-21, it is stated: ―18 In the same day the Lord made a covenant with Abram saying, unto him thy seed have I given this land, from the river, the river Egypt unto the great river the river, Euphrates:19 The Kenites, and the Kennizites, and the Kadmonites,20 And the Hittites, and the Perizzites, and the Rephaims, 21 And the Amorites, and the Canaanites, and the Girgashites, and the Jebusites. Genesis Chapter 16: 6 -12, 6 And Abram said unto Sarai, Behold thy maid is in thy hand; do to her as it pleaseth thee. And when Sarai dealt hardly with her, she fled from her face.7 And the angel of the Lord found her by a fountain of water in the wilderness, by the fountain in the way of Shur. 8 And he said, Hagar, Sarai‘s maid, whence camest thou? And wither wilt thou go? And she said I flee from the face of my mistress Sarai. 9 And the angel of the Lord said unto her return to thy mistress and submit, thyself unto her hands.11 And the angel of the Lord said unto her, behold thou art with child and, shalt bear a son and call his name Ismael; because the Lord hath heard thy affliction. 12 And he will be a wild man; his hand will be against every man, and every man‘s hand against him; and he shall dwell in the presence of all his brethren.15 And Hagar bare Abram a son: and Abram called his son‘s name which Hagar bare Ismael. The above biblical references are some of the scriptures that some Jews base their legitimacy to ―Greater Israel‖ or Biblical Israel, the Arabs also place great legitimacy on certain Quranic Hadith as a means of establishing, a ―divine‖ heritage, backed by their religion. Some of the Quranic hadith are worth recounting here as an aid in establishing the thrust of the work in this portion. Surah 14 Ibrahim part 13relates how Abraham/Ibrahim left Hagar and her son Ishmael in the wilderness he invoked his God and asked him to bless them: ―O our Lord I have made some of my family to dwell in an uncultivated valley by your sacred house (the Kabbah at Makkah); in order o Lord that he may perform As-Salat. So fill some hearts among men with love for them. And o Allah provide them with fruits that they may give thanks. The Quranic account of Ismael and his mother is much longer than the Bible‘s, it establishes the covenant between God and Abraham and his offspring. The Biblical account verifies the Quranic account and both are in agreement. Islam and Judaism are both religious value systems built on the observance of the law. There is however historical evidence that points to Jews, having lived in the area they called the land of Israel and which others came to call Palestine, in the centuries following the destruction of the Second Temple, in the first century a.d. Due to their diminished numbers, and after the conquest of Palestine by Arabs in the seventh century, the majority of the population (including Jews), were Arabized. Most of the inhabitants of Israel called Palestine by the Arabs, adopted the ―new‖ religion of Islam, there yet remained a substantial number of Christians and some Jews. Until the ,modern era few Jews sought actual repatriation from the countries in which they dwelt to Israel. The claim that Israel is a creation of Britain and the UN, is a distortion of historical evidence. There is abundant evidence of a pre-modern Israel with its own distinct cultural value system. In 1881, before the start of the modern migration of Jews into what became known as ―Palestine‖, there were only about 24,000 Jews living in Israel. Many of the Jews in Israel at that time were largely dependent on charity from abroad, as a means of devoting themselves to religious studies and to eventually be buried in the Holy Land. In the next six and a half decades up to the establishment of Israel in 1948, the Jewish population of Palestine increased dramatically. In 1882 in response to an outbreak of anti-Jewish persecution in Eastern Europe, there began the first of a series of waves of Jewish immigration into Israel. The waves were referred to as aliyah (Hebrew for going up), or immigration into Israel. Unlike previous immigrants the new ―settlers‘‖ from Poland, Romania, and Russia‘, motivations were largely nationalist and political. The new immigrants were the forerunners of Jewish secularism and nationalism, that manifested in ―Zionism‖. Zionism held that the return of the Jewish people to the land of Israel and the establishment in Israel, of Jewish nationality and culture, was the only solution to the ―Jewish problem‖. With the aid of Philanthropist‘s among whom were the Rothchilds dynasty, the settlers set up agricultural colonies and revived Hebrew as their daily spoken language. In the decades before World War I, a new wave of immigration brought thousands of Jews into Israel. Many of the young Jewish men and women were socialists who fled Russia after the pogroms of 1903. They were highly energetic and politicized, they were the halutzim ―pioneers‖. The pre-state Jewish community was created by these newcomers. In 1917 the British were fighting the Ottoman empire for what was referred to as Palestine, the British government issued a policy statement, that they called the Balfour Declaration, in acquiescence to the Zionist‘s goal of a ―national Jewish homeland‖, in the biblical-historical land of Israel. The father of Zionism Theodore Herzl said: ―The area of the Jewish State stretches: ―From the Brook of Egypt to the Euphrates.‖ According to Rabbi Fischmann, ―The Promised Land extends from the River of Egypt up to the Euphrates, it includes parts of Syria and Lebanon.‖

Image: A map of present-day Israel.


The document that will be included herein is alluded ad-infinitum by Arab Muslims, in the ME, and throughout the western academic world wherever Muslim students, intellectuals, and Muslim sympathizers are to be found. The following is quoted from Global Research pertinent to same April 29, 2013 ―The following document pertaining to the formation of ―Greater Israel‖ constitutes the cornerstone of powerful Zionist factions within the current Netanyahu government (which has recently been re-elected), the Likud party, as well as within the Israeli military and intelligence establishment. The election was fought by Netanyahu on a political platform that denies Palestinian statehood.According to the founding father of Zionism Theodore Herzl, ―the area of the Jewish State stretches: ―From the Brook of Egypt to the Euphrates.‖ According to Rabbi Fischmann, ―The Promised Land extends from the River of Egypt up to the Euphrates; it includes parts of Syria and Lebanon.When viewed in the current context, the war on Iraq, the 2006 war on Lebanon, the 2011 war on Libya, the ongoing war on Syria and Iraq, the war in Yemen, the process of regime change in Egypt, must be understood in relation to the Zionist Plan for the Middle East. The latter consists in weakening and eventually fracturing neighboring Arab states as part of an Israeli expansionist project.―Greater Israel‖ consists of an area extending from the Nile Valley to the Euphrates.The Zionist project supports the Jewish settlement movement. More broadly it involves a policy of excluding Palestinians from Palestine leading to the eventual annexation of both the West Bank and Gaza to the State of Israel.Greater Israel would create a number of proxy States. It would include parts of Lebanon, Jordan, Syria, the Sinai, as well as parts of Iraq and Saudi Arabia. (See map).


According to Mahdi Darius Nazemroaya in a 2011 Global Research article, The Yinon Plan was a continuation of Britain‘s colonial design in the Middle East:―[The Yinon plan] is an Israeli strategic plan to ensure Israeli regional superiority. It insists and stipulates that Israel must reconfigure its geo-political environment through the balkanization of the surrounding Arab states into smaller and weaker states.Israeli strategists viewed Iraq as their biggest strategic challenge from an Arab state. This is why Iraq was outlined as the centerpiece to the balkanization of the Middle East and the Arab World. In Iraq, on the basis of the concepts of the Yinon Plan, Israeli strategists have called for the division of Iraq into a Kurdish state and two Arab states, one for Shiite Muslims and the other for Sunni Muslims. The first step towards establishing this was a war between Iraq and Iran, which the Yinon Plan discusses.The Atlantic, in 2008, and the U.S. military‘s Armed Forces Journal, in 2006, both published widely circulated maps that closely followed the outline of the Yinon Plan. Aside from a divided Iraq, which the Biden Plan also calls for, the Yinon Plan calls for a divided Lebanon, Egypt, and Syria. The partitioning of Iran, Turkey, Somalia, and Pakistan also all fall into line with these views. The Yinon Plan also calls for dissolution in North Africa and forecasts it as starting from Egypt and then spilling over into Sudan, Libya, and the rest of the region.Greater Israel‖ requires the breaking up of the existing Arab states into small states.―The plan operates on two essential premises. To survive, Israel must 1) become an imperial regional power, and 2) must effect the division of the whole area into small states by the dissolution of all existing Arab states. Small here will depend on the ethnic or sectarian composition of each state. Consequently, the Zionist hope is that sectarian-based states become Israel‘s satellites and, ironically, its source of moral legitimation… This is not a new idea, nor does it surface for the first time in Zionist strategic thinking. Indeed, fragmenting all Arab states into smaller units has been a recurrent theme.‖ (Yinon Plan, see below)Viewed in this context, the war on Syria and Iraq is part of the process of Israeli territorial expansion. Israeli intelligence working hand in glove with the US, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, and NATO is directly supportive of the crusade directed against the so-called Islamic State (ISIS), which ultimately seeks to destroy both Syria and Iraq as nation states‖.The following is a publisher‘s note that is of utmost importance in understanding the preceding and what follows:―The Association of Arab-American University Graduates finds it compelling to inaugurate its new publication series, Special Documents, with Oded Yinon‘s article which appeared in Kivunim (Directions), the journal of the Department of Information of the World Zionist Organization. Oded Yinon is an Israeli journalist and was formerly attached to the Foreign Ministry of Israel. To our knowledge, this document is the most explicit, detailed, and unambiguous statement to date of the Zionist strategy in the Middle East. Furthermore, it stands as an accurate representation of the ―vision‖ for the entire Middle East of the presently ruling Zionist regime of Begin, Sharon, and Eitan. Its importance, hence, lies not in its historical value but in the nightmare which it presents‖.Here is the plan in its entirety: ―A Strategy for Israel in the Nineteen Eighties by Oded Yinon.

This essay originally appeared in Hebrew in KIVUNIM (Directions), A Journal for Judaism and Zionism; Issue No, 14–Winter, 5742, February 1982, Editor: Yoram Beck. Editorial Committee: Eli Eyal, Yoram Beck, Amnon Hadari, Yohanan Manor, Elieser Schweid. Published by the Department of Publicity/The World Zionist Organization, Jerusalem.1At the outset of the nineteen eighties the State of Israel is in need of a new perspective as to its place, its aims and national targets, at home and abroad. This need has become even more vital due to a number of central processes which the country, the region and the world are undergoing. We are living today in the early stages of a new epoch in human history which is not at all similar to its predecessor, and its characteristics are totally different from what we have hitherto known.

That is why we need an understanding of the central processes which typify this historical epoch on the one hand, and on the other hand we need a world outlook and an operational strategy in accordance with the new conditions. The existence, prosperity and steadfastness of the Jewish state will depend upon its ability to adopt a new framework for its domestic and foreign affairs.2This epoch is characterized by several traits which we can already diagnose, and which symbolize a genuine revolution in our present lifestyle. The dominant process is the breakdown of the rationalist, humanist outlook as the major cornerstone supporting the life and achievements of Western civilization since the Renaissance. The political, social and economic views which have emanated from this foundation have been based on several ―truths‖ which are presently disappearing–for example, the view that man as an individual is the centre of the universe and everything exists in order to fulfil his basic material needs. This position is being invalidated in the present when it has become clear that the amount of resources in the cosmos does not meet Man‘s requirements, his economic needs or his demographic constraints. In a world in which there are four billion human beings and economic and energy resources which do not grow proportionally to meet the needs of mankind, it is unrealistic to expect to fulfil the main requirement of Western Society, i.e., the wish and aspiration for boundless consumption. The view that ethics plays no part in determining the direction Man takes, but rather his material needs do–that view is becoming prevalent today as we see a world in which nearly all values are disappearing. We are losing the ability to assess the simplest things, especially when they concern the simple question of what is good and what is Evil.3The vision of man‘s limitless aspirations and abilities shrinks in the face of the sad facts of life, when we witness the break-up of world order around us. The view which promises liberty and freedom to mankind seems absurd in light of the sad fact that three fourths of the human race lives under totalitarian regimes. The views concerning equality and social justice have been transformed by socialism and especially by Communism into a laughing stock. There is no argument as to the truth of these two ideas, but it is clear that they have not been put into practice properly and the majority of mankind has lost the liberty, the freedom and the opportunity for equality and justice. In this nuclear world in which we are (still) living in relative peace for thirty years, the concept of peace and coexistence among nations has no meaning when a superpower like the USSR holds a military and political doctrine of the sort it has: that not only is a nuclear war possible and necessary in order to achieve the ends of Marxism, but that it is possible to survive after it, not to speak of the fact that one can be victorious in it.4The essential concepts of human society, especially those of the West, are undergoing a change due to political, military and economic transformations. Thus, the nuclear and conventional might of the USSR has transformed the epoch that has just ended into the last respite before the great saga that will demolish a large part of our world in a multi-dimensional global war, in comparison with which the past world wars will have been mere child‘s play.

The power of nuclear as well as of conventional weapons, their quantity, their precision and quality will turn most of our world upside down within a few years, and we must align ourselves so as to face that in Israel. That is, then, the main threat to our existence and that of the Western world. 3 The war over resources in the world, the Arab monopoly on oil, and the need of914the West to import most of its raw materials from the Third World, are transforming the world we know, given that one of the major aims of the USSR is to defeat the West by gaining control over the gigantic resources in the Persian Gulf and in the southern part of Africa, in which the majority of world minerals are located. We can imagine the dimensions of the global confrontation which will face us in the future.5The Gorshkov doctrine calls for Soviet control of the oceans and mineral rich areas of the Third World. That together with the present Soviet nuclear doctrine which holds that it is possible to manage, win and survive a nuclear war, in the course of which the West‘s military might well be destroyed and its inhabitants made slaves in the service of Marxism-Leninism, is the main danger to world peace and to our own existence. Since 1967, the Soviets have transformed Clausewitz‘ dictum into ―War is the continuation of policy in nuclear means,‖ and made it the motto which guides all their policies. Already today they are busy carrying out their aims in our region and throughout the world, and the need to face them becomes the major element in our country‘s security policy and of course that of the rest of the Free World. That is our major foreign challenge.6The Arab Moslem world, therefore, is not the major strategic problem which we shall face in the Eighties, despite the fact that it carries the main threat against Israel, due to its growing military might. This world, with its ethnic minorities, its factions and internal crises, which is astonishingly self-destructive, as we can see in Lebanon, in non-Arab Iran and now also in Syria, is unable to deal successfully with its fundamental problems and does not therefore constitute a real threat against the State of Israel in the long run, but only in the short run where its immediate military power has great import. In the long run, this world will be unable to exist within its present framework in the areas around us without having to go through genuine revolutionary changes. The Moslem Arab World is built like a temporary house of cards put together by foreigners (France and Britain in the Nineteen Twenties), without the wishes and desires of the inhabitants having been taken into account. It was arbitrarily divided into 19 states, all made of combinations of minorites and ethnic groups which are hostile to one another, so that every Arab Moslem state nowadays faces ethnic social destruction from within, and in some a civil war is already raging. 5 Most of the Arabs, 118 million out of 170 million, live in Africa, mostly in Egypt (45 million today).7Apart from Egypt, all the Maghreb states are made up of a mixture of Arabs and non-Arab Berbers. In Algeria there is already a civil war raging in the Kabile mountains between the two nations in the country.

Morocco and Algeria are at war with each other over Spanish Sahara, in addition to the internal struggle in each of them. Militant Islam endangers the integrity of Tunisia and Qaddafi organizes wars which are destructive from the Arab point of view, from a country which is sparsely populated and which cannot become a powerful nation. That is why he has been attempting unifications in the past with states that are more genuine, like Egypt and Syria. Sudan, the most torn apart state in the Arab Moslem world today is built upon four groups hostile to each other, an Arab Moslem Sunni minority which rules over a majority of non-Arab Africans, Pagans, and Christians. In Egypt there is a Sunni Moslem majority facing a large minority of Christians which is dominant in upper Egypt: some 7 million of them, so that even Sadat, in his speech on May 8, expressed the fear that they will want a state of their own, something like a ―second‖ Christian Lebanon in Egypt.8All the Arab States east of Israel are torn apart, broken up and riddled with inner conflict even more than those of the Maghreb. Syria is fundamentally no different from Lebanon except in the strong military regime which rules it. But the real civil war taking place nowadays between the Sunni majority and the Shi‘ite Alawi ruling minority (a mere 12% of the population) testifies to the severity of the domestic trouble.9Iraq is, once again, no different in essence from its neighbors, although its majority is Shi‘ite and the ruling minority Sunni. Sixty-five percent of the population has no say in politics, in which an elite of 20 percent holds the power. In addition, there is a large Kurdish minority in the north, and if it weren‘t for915the strength of the ruling regime, the army, and the oil revenues, Iraq‘s future state would be no different from that of Lebanon in the past or of Syria today.

The seeds of inner conflict and civil war are apparent today already, especially after the rise of Khomeini to power in Iran, a leader whom the Shi‘ites in Iraq view as their natural leader.10All the Gulf principalities and Saudi Arabia are built upon a delicate house of sand in which there is only oil. In Kuwait, the Kuwaitis constitute only a quarter of the population. In Bahrain, the Shi‘ites are the majority but are deprived of power. In the UAE, Shi‘ites are once again the majority but the Sunnis are in power. The same is true of Oman and North Yemen. Even in Marxist South Yemen, there is a sizable Shi‘ite minority. In Saudi Arabia half the population is foreign, Egyptian, and Yemenite, but a Saudi minority holds power.11Jordan is in reality Palestinian, ruled by a Trans-Jordanian Bedouin minority, but most of the army and certainly the bureaucracy is now Palestinian. As a matter of fact Amman is as Palestinian as Nablus. All of these countries have powerful armies, relatively speaking. But there is a problem there too. The Syrian army today is mostly Sunni with an Alawi officer corps, the Iraqi army Shi‘ite with Sunni commanders. This has great significance in the long run, and that is why it will not be possible to retain the loyalty of the army for a long time except where it comes to the only common denominator: The hostility towards Israel and today even that is insufficient.12Alongside the Arabs, split as they are, the other Moslem states share a similar predicament. Half of Iran‘s population is comprised of a Persian speaking group and the other half of an ethnically Turkish group. Turkey‘s population comprises a Turkish Sunni Moslem majority, some 50%, and two large minorities, 12 million Shi‘ite Alawis and 6 million Sunni Kurds. In Afghanistan there are 5 millionShi‘ites who constitute one third of the population. In Sunni Pakistan there are 15 million Shi‘ites who endanger the existence of that state.13This national ethnic minority picture extending from Morocco to India and from Somalia to Turkey points to the absence of stability and a rapid degeneration in the entire region. When this picture is added to the economic one, we see how the entire region is built like a house of cards, unable to withstand its severe problems.14In this giant and fractured world there are a few wealthy groups and a huge mass of poor people. Most of the Arabs have an average yearly income of 300 dollars. That is the situation in Egypt, in most of the Maghreb countries except for Libya, and in Iraq. Lebanon is torn apart and its economy is falling to pieces. It is a state in which there is no centralized power, but only 5 de facto sovereign authorities (Christian in the north, supported by the Syrians and under the rule of the Franjieh clan, in the East an area of direct Syrian conquest, in the center a Phalangist controlled Christian enclave, in the south and up to the Litani river a mostly Palestinian region controlled by the PLO and Major Haddad‘s state of Christians and half a million Shi‘ites). Syria is in an even graver situation and even the assistance she will obtain in the future after the unification with Libya will not be sufficient for dealing with the basic problems of existence and the maintenance of a large army. Egypt is in the worst situation: Millions are on the verge of hunger, half the labor force is unemployed, and housing is scarce in this most densely populated area of the world. Except for the army, there is not a single department operating efficiently and the state is in a permanent state of bankruptcy and depends entirely on American foreign assistance granted since the peace.15In the Gulf States, Saudi Arabia, Libya and Egypt there is the largest accumulation of money and oil in the world, but those enjoying it are tiny elites who lack a wide base of support and self-confidence, something that no army can guarantee.

7 The Saudi army with all its equipment cannot defend the regime from real dangers at home or abroad, and what took place in Mecca in 1980 is only an example. A sad916and very stormy situation surrounds Israel and creates challenges for it, problems, risks but also far-reaching opportunities for the first time since 1967. Chances are that opportunities missed at that time will become achievable in the Eighties to an extent and along dimensions which we cannot even imagine today.16The ―peace‖ policy and the return of territories, through a dependence upon the US, precludes the realization of the new option created for us. Since 1967, all the governments of Israel have tied our national aims down to narrow political needs, on the one hand, and on the other to destructive opinions at home which neutralized our capacities both at home and abroad. Failing to take steps towards the Arab population in the new territories, acquired in the course of a war forced upon us, is the major strategic error committed by Israel on the morning after the Six Day War. We could have saved ourselves all the bitter and dangerous conflict since then if we had given Jordan to the Palestinians who live west of the Jordan River. By doing that we would have neutralized the Palestinian problem which we nowadays face, and to which we have found solutions that are really no solutions at all, such as territorial compromise or autonomy which amount, in fact, to the same thing. Today, we suddenly face immense opportunities for transforming the situation thoroughly and this we must do in the coming decade; otherwise we shall not survive as a state.17In the course of the Nineteen Eighties, the State of Israel will have to go through far-reaching changes in its political and economic regime domestically, along with radical changes in its foreign policy, in order to stand up to the global and regional challenges of this new epoch. The loss of the Suez Canal oil fields, of the immense potential of the oil, gas, and other natural resources in the Sinai peninsula which is geomorphologically identical to the rich oil-producing countries in the region, will result in an energy drain in the near future and will destroy our domestic economy: one-quarter of our present GNP, as well as one-third of the budget, is used for the purchase of oil.

The search for raw materials in the Negev and on the coast will not, in the near future, serve to alter that state of affairs.18(Regaining) the Sinai peninsula with its present and potential resources is, therefore, a political priority that is obstructed by Camp David and the peace agreements. The fault for that lies of course with the present Israeli government and the governments which paved the road to the policy of territorial compromise, the Alignment governments since 1967. The Egyptians will not need to keep the peace treaty after the return of the Sinai, and they will do all they can to return to the fold of the Arab world and to the USSR in order to gain support and military assistance. American aid is guaranteed only for a short while, for the terms of the peace and the weakening of the U.S. both at home and abroad will bring about a reduction in aid. Without oil and the income from it, with the present enormous expenditure, we will not be able to get through 1982 under the present conditions and we will have to act in order to return the situation to the status quo which existed in Sinai prior to Sadat‘s visit and the mistaken peace agreement signed with him in March 1979.19Israel has two major routes through which to realize this purpose, one direct and the other indirect. The direct option is the less realistic one because of the nature of the regime and government in Israel as well as the wisdom of Sadat who obtained our withdrawal from Sinai, which was, next to the war of 1973, his major achievement since he took power. Israel will not unilaterally break the treaty, neither today nor in 1982, unless it is very hard pressed economically and politically and Egypt provides Israel with the excuse to take the Sinai back into our hands for the fourth time in our short history. What is left, therefore, is the indirect option.

The economic situation in Egypt, the nature of the regime, and its pan-Arab policy will bring about a situation after April 1982 in which Israel will be forced to act directly or indirectly in order to regain control over Sinai as a strategic, economic, and energy reserve for the long run. Egypt does not constitute a military strategic problem due to its internal conflicts and it could be driven back to the post-1967 war situation in no more than one day.20The myth of Egypt as the strong leader of the Arab World was demolished back in 1956 and definitely did not survive 1967, but our policy, as in the return of the Sinai, served to turn the myth into ―fact.‖ In reality, however, Egypt‘s power in proportion both to Israel alone and to the rest of the Arab World has gone down about 50 percent since 1967. Egypt is no longer the leading political power in the Arab World and is economically on the verge of a crisis. Without foreign assistance the crisis will come tomorrow. In the short run, due to the return of the Sinai, Egypt will gain several advantages at our expense, but only in the short run until 1982, and that will not change the balance of power to its benefit, and will possibly bring about its downfall. Egypt, in its present domestic political picture, is already a corpse, all the more so if we take into account the growing Moslem-Christian rift. Breaking Egypt down territorially into distinct geographical regions is the political aim of Israel in the Nineteen Eighties on its Western front.21Egypt is divided and torn apart into many foci of authority. If Egypt falls apart, countries like Libya, Sudan or even the more distant states will not continue to exist in their present form and will join the downfall and dissolution of Egypt. The vision of a Christian Coptic State in Upper Egypt alongside a number of weak states with very localized power and without a centralized government as to date, is the key to a historical development which was only set back by the peace agreement but which seems inevitable in the long run.22The Western front, which on the surface appears more problematic, is in fact less complicated than the Eastern front, in which most of the events that make the headlines have been taking place recently. Lebanon‘s total dissolution into five provinces serves as a precedent for the entire Arab world including Egypt, Syria, Iraq and the Arabian Peninsula and is already following that track. The dissolution of Syria and Iraq later on into ethnically or religiously unique areas such as in Lebanon, is Israel‘s primary target on the Eastern front in the long run, while the dissolution of the military power of those states serves as the primary short term target. Syria will fall apart, in accordance with its ethnic and religious structure, into several states such as in present day Lebanon, so that there will be a Shi‘ite Alawi state along its coast, a Sunni state in the Aleppo area, another Sunni state in Damascus hostile to its northern neighbor, and the Druzes who will set up a state, maybe even in our Golan, and certainly in the Hauran and in northern Jordan. This state of affairs will be the guarantee for peace and security in the area in the long run, and that aim is already within our reach today.23Iraq, rich in oil on the one hand and internally torn on the other, is guaranteed as a candidate for Israel‘s targets. Its dissolution is even more important for us than that of Syria. Iraq is stronger than Syria. In the short run it is Iraqi power which constitutes the greatest threat to Israel. An Iraqi-Iranian war will tear Iraq apart and cause its downfall at home even before it is able to organize a struggle on a wide front against us. Every kind of inter-Arab confrontation will assist us in the short run and will shorten the way to the more important aim of breaking up Iraq into denominations as in Syria and in Lebanon. In Iraq, a division into provinces along ethnic/religious lines as in Syria during Ottoman times is possible. So, three (or more) states will exist around the three major cities: Basra, Baghdad and Mosul, and Shi‘ite areas in the south will separate from the Sunni and Kurdish north. It is possible that the present Iranian-Iraqi confrontation will deepen this polarization.24The entire Arabian Peninsula is a natural candidate for dissolution due to internal and external pressures, and the matter is inevitable especially in Saudi Arabia. Regardless of whether its economic might based on oil remains intact or whether it is diminished in the long run, the internal rifts and breakdowns are a clear and natural development in light of the present political structure.25Jordan constitutes an immediate strategic target in the short run but not in the long run, for it does not constitute a real threat in the long run after its dissolution, the termination of the lengthy rule of King Hussein and the transfer of power to the Palestinians in the short run.26918There is no chance that Jordan will continue to exist in its present structure for a long time, and Israel‘s policy, both in war and in peace, ought to be directed at the liquidation of Jordan under the present regime and the transfer of power to the Palestinian majority. Changing the regime east of the river will also cause the termination of the problem of the territories densely populated with Arabs west of the Jordan. Whether in war or under conditions of peace, emigration from the territories and economic demographic freeze in them, are the guarantees for the coming change on both banks of the river, and we ought to be active in order to accelerate this process in the nearest future.

The autonomy plan ought also to be rejected, as well as any compromise or division of the territories for, given the plans of the PLO and those of the Israeli Arabs themselves, the Shefa‘amr plan of September 1980, it is not possible to go on living in this country in the present situation without separating the two nations, the Arabs to Jordan and the Jews to the areas west of the river. Genuine coexistence and peace will reign over the land only when the Arabs understand that without Jewish rule between the Jordan and the sea they will have neither existence nor security. A nation of their own and security will be theirs only in Jordan.27Within Israel the distinction between the areas of ‘67 and the territories beyond them, those of ‘48, has always been meaningless for Arabs and nowadays no longer has any significance for us. The problem should be seen in its entirety without any divisions as of ‘67. It should be clear, under any future political situation or military constellation, that the solution of the problem of the indigenous Arabs will come only when they recognize the existence of Israel in secure borders up to the Jordan River and beyond it, as our existential need in this difficult epoch, the nuclear epoch which we shall soon enter. It is no longer possible to live with three fourths of the Jewish population on the dense shoreline which is so dangerous in a nuclear epoch.28Dispersal of the population is therefore a domestic strategic aim of the highest order; otherwise, we shall cease to exist within any borders. Judea, Samaria and the Galilee are our sole guarantee for national existence, and if we do not become the majority in the mountain areas, we shall not rule in the country and we shall be like the Crusaders, who lost this country which was not theirs anyhow, and in which they were foreigners to begin with. Rebalancing the country demographically, strategically and economically is the highest and most central aim today. Taking hold of the mountain watershed from Beersheba to the Upper Galilee is the national aim generated by the major strategic consideration which is settling the mountainous part of the country that is empty of Jews today.29Realizing our aims on the Eastern front depends first on the realization of this internal strategic objective. The transformation of the political and economic structure, so as to enable the realization of these strategic aims, is the key to achieving the entire change. We need to change from a centralized economy in which the government is extensively involved, to an open and free market as well as to switch from depending upon the U.S. taxpayer to developing, with our own hands, of a genuine productive economic infrastructure. If we are not able to make this change freely and voluntarily, we shall be forced into it by world developments, especially in the areas of economics, energy, and politics, and by our own growing isolation.30From a military and strategic point of view, the West led by the U.S. is unable to withstand the global pressures of the USSR throughout the world, and Israel must therefore stand alone in the Eighties, without any foreign assistance, military or economic, and this is within our capacities today, with no compromises. Rapid changes in the world will also bring about a change in the condition of world Jewry to which Israel will become not only a last resort but the only existential option. We cannot assume that U.S. Jews, and the communities of Europe and Latin America will continue to exist in the present form in the future.31Our existence in this country itself is certain, and there is no force that could remove us from here either forcefully or by treachery (Sadat‘s method). Despite the difficulties of the mistaken ―peace‖ policy and the problem of the Israeli Arabs and those of the territories, we can effectively deal with these problems in the foreseeable future‖.
Conclusion

Image: A map of ―Greater Israel‖, or ―The Biblical Lands of Israel‖. In Genesis Chapter 15:18-21 it is stated: ―18 In the same day the lord made a covenant with Abram saying, unto him thy seed have I given this land, from the river, the river Egypt unto the great river the river, Euphrates:19 The kenites, and the Kennizites, and the Kadmonites,20 And the Hittites, and the Perizzites, and the Rephaims, 21 And the Amorites, and the Canaanites, and the Gergishites, and the Jebusites.


I will quote here from War on Syria: Gateway to World War III, by Tony Cartalucci and Nile Bowie.―In 1952, Israeli Defense Minister Moshe Dayan spoke ardently of Tel Aviv‘sultimate goal, the creation of ―an Israeli empire.‖ Netanyahu‘s conservative Likudparty was founded on the ideological foundations of Revisionist Zionism, promotingJewish settlement in Judea and Samaria (the West Bank) and the full biblical land ofIsrael by contemporary Jews, an oil-rich landmass extending from the banks of theNile River in Egypt to the shores of the Euphrates. The Movement for Greater Israelwas founded following the capture of the West Bank and Gaza Strip from Jordan andEgypt during 1967‘s Six Day War, leading to the wider construction of Israeli920settlements. Israel‘s Likud party was established on the philosophy of Ze‘evJabotinksy, who called for the establishment of a ―Greater Israel,‖ a concept embracedby Israeli historian Benzion Netanyahu, father of Israel‘s Prime Minister who was quoted in a 2012 interview before his death as saying : ―The Bible finds no worse image than this of the man from the desert. And why? Because he has no respect for any law. Because in the desert he can do as he pleases,‖Benzion Netanyahu said. ―The tendency towards conflict is in the essence of the Arab.He is an enemy by essence. His personality won‘t allow him any compromise oragreement. It doesn‘t matter what kind of resistance he will meet, what price he willpay. His existence is one of perpetual war.‖ Israel‘s must be the same, he indicated. ―Thetwo states solution doesn‘t exist,‖ Benzion Netanyahu said. ―There are no two peoplehere. There is a Jewish people and an Arab population… there is no Palestinian people,so you don‘t create a state for an imaginary nation… they only call themselves a peoplein order to fight the Jews.‖ Benjamin Netanyahu was portrayed as the ideological heir of his late father’s rhetoric in a TIME magazine article titled: ―Received Wisdom? How, the Ideology of The Father Influenced the Son‖, TIME, May 02 2012. Benjamin Netanyahu‘s most recent UN performance saw him lumping Tehran together with IS, Syria, Hamas, and others, to pander to the West and certainly not his Israeli base, since the Jews know full well that the groups and countries mentioned above are divided along sectarian and ideological lines. Netanyahu insists on ―Israel‘s right‖ to strike at Iran first in a worst-case scenario, which would plunge the entire Middle East and effectively the world into an instant World War III. Cartalucci and Bowies’ book with its World War III scenario is almost prophetic in its predictions.The biblical implications of the present war theatre in the Middle East are astounding in their clarity and I will examine a few in light of bible prophecy.

Obama‘s UN speech where he declared that Israel should abide by the pre-1967 borders, was flatly rejected by a visibly irritated Benjamin Netanyahu. Netanyahu declared that the pre-1967 Israeli borders were, indefensible in contemporary times and Israel would not cede an inch of territory, to the detriment of its people. The crux of what Obama, was demanding began during the Arab- Israeli War, the Palestinian Arabs were facing defeat in Israel, the governments of Egypt, Transjordan, Syria, Iraq, and Lebanon decided to intervene militarily as a means of preventing ―partition‖(the division of the country into Jewish and Arab states). May 15, 1948, Arab military forces entered Israel/Palestine. The Israeli terrorist, groups were by June of the921the same year, merged into the Israeli Defense Forces. The IDF was able to block the Arabs and took the offensive. A UN-appointed mediator Count Folk Bernadotte was assassinated by Jewish terrorists in September. By the end of the fighting in January 1949, the Jews had extended their area of control to almost 77 percent of the country. By February amidst protracted negotiations and signings that stretched well into July of 1949, armistice agreements were signed between Israel, Egypt, Lebanon, Jordan, and Syria. Israel’s first general elections were held in January 1949, the Mapai party emerged as the largest party in the Knesset its leader David Ben-Gurion, formed a coalition government with the religious and centrist parties. Chaim Weizman, elder statesman of the Zionist movement, was elected as Israel‘s first president; after his death in 1952, Itzhak Ben-Zvi replaced him. The armistice agreement of 1949 was a disappointment for the Arabs and did not open the way, to a comprehensive peace agreement. King Abdullah of Jordan who had annexed the West Bank in 1949, held secret talks with Israel, he was assassinated in July 1951, by a Palestinian nationalist. Palestinians began to infiltrate into Israel from the West Bank and Gaza, perpetuating attacks on Israeli‘s, Israel launched retaliatory raids, the ensuing violence spiraled dangerously out of control, resulting in the deaths of, Israeli civilians and soldiers, as well as Arab civilians and soldiers. Ben-Gurion and his protégé, Moshe Dayan army chief of staff at the time, propagated renewed territorial expansion. In 1955 Ben-Gurion became the Israeli defense minister.
Will be continued in upcoming posts/ This post was written with the Bible as the prism, or worldview, out of which it was constructed. This post was originally posted when Barack Obama was the US President. I will be posting, articles from my Blogspot.com sites, as I will be discontinuing those. I want to maintain the archive here, and post some of the post’s that were of great interest to my readers.

The Japhetic Nations in North America.

e Japhetic Nations, in North America).The first Sermon in America preached by one of the Pilgrim Fathers in 1620, Massachusetts.The people called the Pilgrim Fathers came to what they called the New World to escape religious persecution.They were welcomed by the indigenous people who treated them kindly and shared their food with them.Out of that experience they instituted a day that they called thanksgiving, it is still celebrated today throughout the U.S.The ―Pilgrims‖ though murdered the Indians and their land was stolen from them.The European practiced a politics of conquest and used what they claimed was Christianity as a means to their end.The charlatans and fakes using the Christian faith as a means to an end overwhelmed the few truly genuine Christians amongst them.

An early colonist settlement on the American continent the continent is named after Amerigo Vespucci a Spanish conquistador I call him, a ―raider.‖The Sioux nation and many others were very welcoming of the colonists who settled in the Southern part of the continent, as can be seen, the painting above shows the indigenous people freely mingling with the colonists.When gold was discovered in the Black Hills, thousands of colonists came to the area and settled there. The presence of so many settlers encroaching on their territory enraged the indigenous people and many wars were fought with the colonists.The most famous war is the battle of Little Big Horn.There are many historical accounts of wars and battles, between the indigenous inhabitants ofwhat the Caucasian called America and the Amerindians. The native, to whom the land rightfully belongs were brave and valiant, unfortunately, due to the sheer numbers of the Caucasian and his superior technology, the inevitable occurred the final defeat of the ―Red Warriors‖, in scripture he is called the Red Horse.

The painting above depicts the four horses of the Apocalypse/Revelations.The horses are representative of the four racial groups; the African the European, the continental Red Indian and all the Asiatic types with China as the ultimate leader ―The Dragon.

This painting is of the committee that convened on 4 July and out of which the Emancipation Proclamation came.This will be continued in our section on Abraham Lincoln.The front and back of what the American government calls the ―Great Seal of the United States.‖M=1000, DCC=700, LXX=70, VI=6, the Roman numerals at the bottom of the pyramid stands for 1776 the year America became a nation.On the back of the seal, which can be found on the reverse of their dollar bill, is an unfinished pyramid, above the pyramid, is the Egyptian all Seeing Eye of Horus/Lucifer, the eye is surrounded by an emanation ―Illumination‖ of light.The Latin words on the front of their seal Eplurbus Unum meaning ―out of many one,‖ that is the Greek concept which in fact is the ―democratic‖, demos=many, cratos=rule, hence the term the majority rules. The concept of welding many different nationalities together in order to create one people or one nation, the Greek concept is also at work today on Sint Marten destroying the590very fabric of society, the most affected in society are poor young people and apostolic male youth.Above the eye the Latin words Annuit Coeptis, meaning, ―He favors our undertaking-,‖ underneath the pyramid we read Novus Ordo Seclorum, translated it reads, ―A new order of the ages,‖ (A New World Order).The Greeks built their value system from Egyptian or the Kemitian value system.The above right is the obverse of the Great Seal of America, and sketches of the originalWe see the founders of America spoke of a god and they claimed that he favored them who is their god? The third drawing at bottom left is of a Phoenix, which is similar to the phoenix next to it. The Eagle on the American Great Seal differs greatly from the original, which is no Eagle but a Phoenix. The drawings provided will aid the reader in making their own comparisons.

The following is from Hunt‘s (History of the Seal of the United States).

We see the founders of America spoke of a god and they claimed that he favored them who is their god? The third drawing at bottom left is of a Phoenix, which is similar to the phoenix next to it. The Eagle on the American Great Seal differs greatly from the original, which is no Eagle but a Phoenix. The drawings provided will aid the reader in making their own comparisons.The following is from Hunt‘s (History of the Seal of the United States).―In a colored sketch submitted as a design for the Great Seal by William Barton in 1782, an actual Phoenix appears sitting upon a nest of flames. This in itself demonstrates a tendency towards the use of this emblematic bird.Many claim that the founders of America were Christians yet the symbolism on their seal is occultic, the eye of Horus is an occult symbol.The New World Order is an age-old esoteric age that many New Agers and others are awaiting. In view of the evidence how can you rightfully call the founders of America Christian?, most of the symbolism and architecture of the American capital are Greek and Egyptian. Two pronounced esoteric occult cultures, the system of governance of America ―Democracy, is one adopted from the Romans, who built their empire on Greek values, and the Greeks in turn built their value system from Egyptian or the Kemitian value system .The following are Branch of Service Insignia, of the United States Army.

Intelligence USAR, as can be seen the symbol is a sphinx throughout this work I have explained what a sphinx is and out of which cultures the creature originated.Women‘s Army Corps the symbol is the Greek goddess Minerva wearing a helmet characteristically worn by Greek warriors.

This is the bust of the Roman goddess Minerva the goddess of the arts, arts in her case denotes the arts of Witchcraft. She corresponded to the Greek goddess Athena Pallas; she later was given the attributes of Athena who was a goddess of wisdom and war. Who can deny the overt paganism of America in the deliberate adaptation of pagan symbolism throughout its society, the ruling spirit of America is the Greek spirit as such America is an anti-Christian society in spite of its claims to the contrary.The third symbol is of the Transportation Corps, note the wings in the middle of the symbol representative of Achilles, a swift Greek god, (The term Achilles heel is taken from this legend).All the above points to the occult symbolism present in the American culture the Greek and Roman influence can never be denied neither is it coincidental nor innocent it is deliberate methodical and overt, the intent being to infuse the Grecian spirit into modern American life.

The library of congress in Washington D.C. replete with Greek and Roman cultural imagery the very style of architecture is Greco-Roman.Even the circular pattern above is after the pattern of the Romans.593The United States of America’s capital city is Washington D.C. (District of Columbia), America is a republic.America is comprised of fifty states forty-nine of which are on the continent and one in Hawai.The currency used in America is the U.S. dollar of course many persons today are familiar with some of what is being said here.Some Caribbean islands fall under the Jurisdiction of America, namely the US Virgin Islands, St Thomas, St Croix, next we have, Puerto Rico, although Gaum, American Samoa, and Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands are not Caribbean islands they are American territories.America is a representative Democracy; laws are passed by and approved by Congress.The American president has a considerable amount of power but Congress checks his power.Recently though the president was given extraordinary powers in the event of a scenario such as the 9/11 attacks, the U.S. president has the power to function as a virtual dictator.Many Americans think that their president should not have extraordinary powers in any circumstance after the 9/11 attacks we have seen America taking on a pronounced socialist character.America was being taken into socialism before September 11, but the pace has now been accelerated.With the advent of Obama, it only is a matter of time before America is completely a socialist nation.I want to now backtrack into the past in order to establish empirical evidence concerning the development of the American Revolution how America came into being as a Union and how it developed into the United States of America. On the 16th of December 1773 Under the leadership of John Adams, a group of colonists disguised as Indians boarded three British ships with a cargo of tea and threw the cargo overboard the event was called ―the Boston Tea Party.

After the event described above the opposing sides began to fight in earnest and to organize.The second continental Congress that came together in the summer of 1775 chose George Washington as chief in command of the American forces.In 1789 Washington was elected as the first American president in 1796 he refused to lead the American people as their president for a third term.The actual driving philosophy behind the American Revolution came from certain schools of thought I want to examine a few.

The fathers of America were according to some accounts preachers and ―Christians‖, yet history bears witness to the fact that many of them were Freemasons, which is in fact an offshoot of Baalism. The symbols on the United States dollar are of Egyptian and Freemasonic origin anyone doubting this must only turn the dollar bill over to see the proof of my statements.George Washington; known as, the Founding Father of America, in full Masonic regalia.The cornerstone of the US capitol was laid with Masonic honors on September 18th 1793; the covering organization was the Grand Lodge of Maryland. To the right is the prayer room at next to the capitals Rotunda, the ever present all Seeing Eye is directly above the head of the kneeling Washington, underneath the eye is the Egyptian pyramid.

Another Masonic rendering that reads ―the fatherhood of God ……the brotherhood of man. Christian sounding words, until you examine the artwork carefully. George Washington is wearing the Masonic lambskin apron, the showel with which he laid the first cornerstone of the Capitol Building. Who can deny the overt Masonic implications of the artwork above.There is even a greater proof than prominent US presidents and others in Masonic artwork, and even the old photographs of presidents wearing Masonic regalia and lambskins, and other irrefutable Masonic articles of clothing. The literature by person‘s considered to be amongst some of the worlds greatest Freemasonic thinkers, scholars and philosophers, one such person is Manly P Hall. In Hall‘s: The Secret Teaching‘s of All Ages,he implicitly refer to both George Washington and Benjamin Franklin as Masons and Franklin he suggested was not only a mason, but a Rosicrucian too, and Rosicrucianism at that time, was an order that practiced human sacrifice.Here is Hall in his own words: ―Many times the question has been asked, was Francis Bacon‘s vision of the ―New Atlantis‖, a prophetic dream of the new civilization which was to rise upon the soil of the New World? It cannot be doubted that the secret societies of Europe conspired to establish upon the American continent “A new nation, conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal” Two incidents in the early history of the United States evidence the influence of that silent body,which has so long guided the destinies of peoples and religions. By them nations are created as vehicles for the promulgation of ideals, and while nations are true to these ideals they survive;when they vary from them they vanish like the Atlantis of old which had ceased “to know the gods”.Even the designing of the colonial flag in 1775, was attributed to a ―mystery school wiseman‖, in Our Flag, by Robert Cambell (cited by Manly P. Hall in the book named in the preceding. Hall went on to detail from Cambell‘s book how General George Washington (future United States of America President), and Benjamin Franklin also a man who was destined to be a US President. Hall wrote: ― Did General Washington and Dr Franklin recognize the ―Professor‖ (the Professor references the wise man previously indicated), as an emissary of the mystery school which has so long controlled the political destinies of this planet? Benjamin Franklin was a philosopher and a Freemason possibly a Rosicrucian initiate‖. He and the marquis Lafayette … also a man of mystery…constitute two of the most important links in the chain of circumstance that culminated in the establishment of the original thirteen American colonies in a free and independent nation‖. Dr Franklin’s philosophic attainment‘s are well attested in Poor Richard‘s Almanac, published by him for many years under the name of Richard Saunders. His interest in the cause of Freemasonry is also shown in his republication of Anderson‘s Constitution of Freemasonry, a rare and much disputed work on the subject. The preceding has ably lain, the foundation for the following in this portion of this work.

In the Occulus of the Capitols dome, is a painting that is esoteric and occultic in all its facets. Why would the ostensibly Christian fathers commission such artwork? The only logical conclusion that I found is the founders were themselves occultists and used ―Christianity‖, as a convenient cloak when it best suited their needs. The painting above in the Occulus, of the Capitol, was inspired by the one on pg:286. The Apotheosis is the name of the painting on 286, which was done by Constantine Brumidi. Brumidi also painted the one in the Capitols occulus.

This is a close up of the painting discussed on the previous page. The choice of modeling this painting after the Vatican’s ―Apotheosis painted by the same man as the original, is revealing on many levels. The Apotheosis of Jesus speaks to his elevation from, his human existence to a divine one. The painting above given what has been divulged thus far, infers that George Washington was not a mere man, but a divine being i.e. a god. In the painting he is surrounded by various gods, from Greek mythology, those ―gods‖, are called pagan deities, by occultists and in scripture. Washington was knowingly portrayed as a chief pagan god surrounded by some of the greatest pagan Greek deities, and the fathers of America had no objection the painting can be viewed today in all its glory by anyone willing to take the time.

The original ―Apotheosis‖, named ―Christ in his majesty‖ in all it‘s full pagan pseudo-majesty.The painting above is itself a pagan painting, featuring the same winged babies as the other pagan paintings featured in this book. The Roman Catholic Institution, is treated as part and parcel and a continuation of paganism, and witchcraft under a pseudo-Christian veneer, in this work.

The collage of figures are close ups of the ―gods‖, surrounding Washington.The first at left top is Thoth or Hermes wearing his winged cap. In paganism he is the god of wisdom, he delivers an elixir of knowledge in a vial, for the founders to drink from, a ―divine elixir? I will quote from Helena Blavatsky‘s: Isis Unveiled ―Hermetist-from Hermes the god of wisdom, known in, Egypt, Syria and Phoenicia as Thoth, Tat, Adad, Seth and Satan, and in Greece as Kadmus. The Kabbalists identify him as Adam Kadmon the first manifestation of the divine power. There were two Hermes the first Trismegistus (Hermes Thrice Great), and the second an emanation of him. The friend and instructor of Isis and Osiris. Hermes is the god of the priestly wisdom, like Mazeus‖. Blavatsky that infamous occultist and teacher in her own words verifying, many of the claims made in this book.The second at right features Poseidon king of Atlantis and his offspring Venus.The third left is Vulcan god of fire, the esoteric deity of Alchemy. The fourth right is the American ―goddess‖, Columbia attacking tyranny in the form of fleeing men. Columbia is a composite of Minerva the goddess of war and crafts as in witchcraft; she is also the Roman Libertas/Liberty or Diana. The last two are of Ceres left and Minnerva at right. Ceres is the goddess of agriculture; Minnerva is the goddess of wisdom, war and crafts.

Pegassus the messenger of the gods although Pegassus was not included in the painting, it is included here because of its unique relationship to the rainbow i.e. Satan.

Above Alchemy is portrayed as a god, on the Notre Dame de Paris Cathedral. To the right Washington sits as a god, holding a sheathed sword in his left hand and pointing at an open book with his right hand. The god Alchemy above is holding two books in her hand one closed and one open (esotericism and esotericism), in Alchemy‘ left hand she holds a scepter signifying royalty and rulership. Since Washington is portrayed as a god here it follows that he would be all-powerful and wise, the open book signifies, his ability to grant ―enlightenment‖, to the seeker. Between her knees and going up the length of her body, is the The scalaphilosphorum, The Philosophers ladder, scaladei or stairway to god. Washington points to the book of Light Heavenly Secrets. I will again defer here to Manly P. Hall pertaining to the ―godhood of man‖. ―An ancient philosopher once said he who has not even knowledge of common things is a brute amongst men. He who has accurate knowledge of human concerns alone is a man amongst brutes. But he who knows all that can be known by intellectual energy is a God among men‖. Here we have empirical evidence from one of the ―greats‖, in philosophy and Freemasonic thought, two schools of thinking both of which George Washington, was an ardent student of. Therefore it should come as no surprise that in the most ―sacred and hallowed‖, buildings of Americana Washington is being portrayed as a god, but not any mere god nay, he is being portrayed as the highest pagan god Zeus himself, as I will prove subsequently in this work, cementing factually Washington‘s occult leanings and personal philosophical underpinnings.

All Eyez on Me”: How Hollywood Depoliticized the Life and Death of Hip Hop Artist Tupac Shakur.

In a poignant article that was published on Global Research by James F. Tracy. The depoliticization of the life of Tupac Shakur, was examined. Frequent readers of this Blog know that, the depoliticization of the western hemisphere and in particular the Caribbean is an often written about topic here. The Tupac narrative is only the most recent attempt by the corporate western , machine at depoliticization of a popular political artist such as Shakur. I will examine that article in the following .   
All Eyez on Me (2017) is a lavish dramatization of controversial hip-hop artist Tupac Shakur’s brief, tragic, and largely misjudged life. The motion picture’s emergence more than twenty years after his untimely death is especially significant because it purports to accurately depict the biography of perhaps the most important and provocative black figure since Malcolm X, and does so for an entire generation too young to recall Shakur’s impact and, more importantly, the artist’s relatedness to deep state maneuvers against black enfranchisement and probable ongoing US counterintelligence efforts targeting public figures capable of wielding influence over the public mind”.
Production of All Eyez on Me began in 2015 after a tentative 2011 settlement of a legal fight that ensued between the film’s producer, Morgan Creek, and Shakur’s estate.  L.T. Hutton the owner of film production company Program Pictures co-produced the film along with, Benny Boom a known Hip-Hop video producer. Hutton himself is a music producer who worked with Shakur during his Death Row days. The film is an amateurish, nostalgic approach, which largely ignores the political aspect, of Shakur’s life and focuses on his gangsta persona. Written largely in the spirit of contemporaneous society, the film doesn’t introduce anything new to the Tupac narrative, nor is the production despite its $40 million dollar budget spectacular, nor innovative. Despite some celebrities like Snoop Dogg, the Outlawz and others green lighting the project, just as many celebrities like Jada Pinkett Smith found numerous faults with the project.  
There’s a whole lot of things that they would not have been in the movie that actually happened,” remarked veteran director John Singleton, who was originally approved by the Shakurs to head up the film. “They stole the [film’s] rights from his mother. They made the movie they wanted to make, and hopefully one day I’ll get a chance to tell that story
Without its powerful soundtrack and an at times moving portrayal of Shakur’s relationship with his mother, the film is a textbook example of how Hollywood enfeebles innately political subject matter. The viewer is invited to revel in a tediously idealized rendering of a celebrity seemingly doomed by his own naivete, personal lifestyle choices, and the inherent violence of hip-hop culture. As Singleton suggests, All Eyez on Me succeeds as a carefully constructed tableau of distortion and omission that misses (perhaps intentionally) the powerful socio-political dimensions of Shakur’s activism and expression while casting aside many uncomfortable yet pertinent factors leading to his demise.
“Prevent the Rise of a Messiah”
A most unsettling facet of All Eyez on Me’s narrative is its glaring isolation of US intelligence involvement in Shakur’s life to his early childhood years, a time when he witnessed surveillance and harassment of both parents due to their political activism. In the same vein, the romanticized depiction of Shakur’s transition from art school dropout to overnight sensation conveniently removes from consideration exactly how Shakur’s combined childhood poverty, black nationalist heritage, activism to quell gang-related violence, and subsequent artistic rise almost certainly made him a target of the very deep state forces then-implicated in the crack cocaine epidemic ravaging black communities.
In the decades following the successful disruption of social movements that began in the 1960s, the targets of US government subversion seldom changed. During this period, however, counterintelligence techniques were steadily refined   To confront various forms of political engagement surging throughout the late 1960s in particular, the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s COINTELPRO program “secretly instructed its field offices to propose schemes to ‘expose, disrupt, misdirect, discredit, or otherwise neutralize’ specific individuals and groups.
Close coordination with local police and prosecutors was encouraged,” attorney Brian Glick observes. Despite COINTELPRO’s exposure and congressional investigations, such programs “persisted throughout the 1980s,” becoming “a permanent feature of U.S. government,” with the Black, Native American, and Chicano civil rights movements all subjected to routine surveillance.
One month before the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. the FBI set out to focus on “Black Nationalist – Hate Groups,” according to the agency’s own Counterintelligence Program files. The US’s foremost national police force specifically sought to “[p]revent the rise of a messiah’ who could unify, and electrify the militant black nationalist movement. Malcolm X might have been such a ‘messiah;’” the document continues,
he is the martyr of the movement today. Martin Luther King, Stokely Carmichael, and Elijah Muhammad all aspire to this position … King could be a very real contender for this position should he abandon his supposed “obedience” to “white liberal doctrines” [nonviolence] and embrace black nationalism.[3, emphasis retained]
While All Eyez on Me depicts the struggle of Shakur’s parents with such abusive forms of law enforcement and surveillance, these experiences are represented as isolated chapters of Tupac’s life that have little-if-any direct relationship to the same forces that appear to have harnessed and misdirected his talents in his last few years. By failing to sufficiently acknowledge how the planned subversion of Black activists and public figures largely defined Shakur’s life path and career, the film succeeds as a classic demonstration of Hollywood whitewash and political miseducation.
Death Row Records: An Intelligence Operation?
Among the most significant and conspicuous features of All Eyez on Me’s depoliticized narrative is its failure to probe the true origins of Death Row Records—the label Shakur contracted with in the months leading up to his death, and its linkages to US intelligence and law enforcement.

In 1995 Shakur had served eight months of a one-to-for year term in an upstate New York prison for a sexual assault charge. Death Row’s director, former professional football player Marion “Suge” Knight, reached an agreement with Shakur to post the $1.4 million bond securing the artist’s release in exchange for his agreement to sign with Death Row.
Careful researchers conclude how thereafter Shakur witnessed his own talents reoriented and depraved under Knight’s tutelage and, more importantly, the darker forces behind Death Row.
Death Row was founded with seed money from Michael “Harry O” Harris, an aide to CIA-linked drug trafficker “Freeway” Ricky Ross, and flamboyant mob-linked Los Angeles attorney Dave Kenner. As the founder and owner of Death Row’s parent company, Godfather Entertainment, Kenner oversaw Knight’s management of Death Row.
Despite a string of serious violent crimes, Knight “seemed untouchable,” historian John Potash observes. “[I]t is most likely that Knight made a deal with police, as they failed to arrest him while he ran Death Row Records, until he completed his most important tasks. These tasks appeared to overlap U.S. intelligence’s agenda.”[4]
Knight’s rapid conversion from easy going and gregarious student and college football player at El Camino College and the University of Nevada Las Vegas to a “remote and serious character” with unusual access to resources suggest that powerful forces had entered his life. “Overnight, he had enough money to rent an apartment by himself and to purchase a series of late-model sedans,” journalist Randall Sullivan notes. “He regularly received visitors from Compton, and developed a reputation as perhaps the biggest drug dealer on campus.”[5]
Indeed, research by Potash and Sullivan point to Death Row’s close involvement with local law enforcement and the Los Angeles Police Department’s enlistment of COINTELPRO-style tactics to infiltrate and control the label. Veteran Los Angeles Police detective Russell Poole “discovered ‘dozens and dozens of police officers were working’ at all levels of Death Row Records. Det. Poole was told these officers could be considered ‘troubleshooters or covert agents.” The recording label’s head of security was also a former LAPD employee who “admitted to having many LAPD officers working for him.”
Poole’s investigation of Death Row’s potential role in rival rapper Biggie Small’s murder further revealed the label’s drug and weapons trafficking activities, and probable role in
provoking murderous fights between the Bloods and Crips gang members it employed. In doing so, Death Row appeared to aid the U.S. intelligence operation to end the gang-peace truces that were part of the radical politicization of these gangs achieved by Tupac and the Panthers.
All Eyez on Me’s failure to situate Death Row amidst its numerous COINTELPRO-like relationships undermines any meaningful understanding of how Shakur’s talents were sabotaged in his final months. For example, immediately following Shakur’s 1995 release from prison Kenner and Knight got the rapper intoxicated on alcohol and marijuana, thereby causing him to break a public vow to refrain from drug use. Death Row’s owner and director then persuaded Shakur “to enter the recording studio the same day as his prison release, while he was drunk and stoned,” Potash explains.
This resulted in Tupac producing his most negative lyrics. These included a double album of lyrics that almost exclusively promoted smoking weed and selling drugs, and served to increase tensions in the East Coast versus West rap war U.S. intelligence appeared to orchestrate.
The importance of Shakur’s partnership with Death Row was lost on neither himself or other politically conscious Black figures. For example, after Shakur confided to New African People’s Organization leader Watani Tyehimba, “I know I’m selling my soul to the devil,” the latter excommunicated the rapper.[6]
Lacking such crucial information All Eyez on Me invites its audience to partake in an almost mocking ritual of mass deception in which difficult political and historical truths are suppressed alongside Shakur’s lyrics that sought to highlight the array of social and political hypocrisies defining US race and class relations.
All Eyez on the Messenger
The US film industry’s influence on this important chapter of popular memory is further suggested in a study of contrasts between the subject matter and degree of resources afforded All Eyez on Me versus 2014’s Kill the Messenger, a much more modest Hollywood dramatization of an equally significant figure from that very era, investigative reporter Gary Webb, whose career was without question undermined by establishment forces.
The shared terrain might end there, if not for the fact that Shakur and Webb chronicled the calculated subversion and decimation of black urban experience from within and without its borders; each transcending if for a moment the conventional worldview prescribed and enforced by the US news media and entertainment industry. The deep state’s condemnation of their efforts in this regard is evident in the degree of resources and de facto censorship afforded each of their stories by that very industry.
One month before Shakur’s September 7, 1996 murder, Webb’s exposé of CIA involvement in the crack cocaine epidemic led to his eventual expulsion from the journalistic profession. Kill the Messenger provided an overall historically accurate rendering of how Webb’s most important work was received, the repercussions it had on his career and personal life, and unabashedly pointed to the US government’s role in the journalist’s downward trajectory. The film cost $5 million to produce, grossing half that amount during a very limited release in 374 theatres nationwide.
All Eyez on Me had a $40 million production budget, debuted at 2,471 theatres, and as of this writing has grossed close to $45 million in less than one month.[7] In addition to its many clear factual errors (pointed to by Shakur’s fandom, e.g. here and here) the film reduces the CIA’s crack cocaine assault on black urban America to a personal struggle borne by Shakur’s mother that is eventually conquered through her placement in rehab.
Along these lines, most filmgoers with even a modest understanding of Shakur’s contributions and biography recognize the degree of license taken by All Eyez on Me’s producers in depicting the artist’s tragic death in a hail of gunfire—an episode that has given rise to numerous theories of what parties may have been behind the event and how it actually played out. As with so many political assassinations in the latter twentieth century, improper investigation of the crime, missing information and unanswered questions has rightly fostered such conjecture.
For example, in contrast to the film’s narrative, Shakur was hospitalized for almost one week before his death. Despite these ambiguities at the time the US news media essentially blamed Shakur for his death by framing the murder as yet another casualty in a “war” between east and west coast-based rappers—a war that Death Row’s leadership actively provoked.[8]
One should not anticipate from the US film industry an honest interpretation of an historical phenomenon’s many jagged edges, especially in the event of a story as politically explosive as Shakur’s. All Eyez on Me is nevertheless a fitting title for a production that succeeds as an assemblage of mesmerizing music videos productions in which Shakur’s likeness and intellectual property are hijacked to at once define and depoliticize his message for an entire generation. The film does so in ways so egregious that the protests of Shakur’s survivors, including his own mother, were legally assaulted and ultimately ignored. Thus it is not unreasonable to suggest that powerful forces lurked behind the film’s production in much the same way they likely played a role in the final chapter of Shakur’s short life.


Notes
[1] Eriq Gardner, “All Eyez on  Me’: The Legal Battle Over Bringing Tupac’s Life to the Screen,” Hollywood Reporter, May 15, 2017.
[2] Yohance Kyles, “John Singleton Says ‘All Eyez on Me’ Filmmakers Stole the Movie Rights From Afeni Shakur,” All Hip Hop News, June 21, 2017.
[3] Brian Glick, War At Home: Covert Action Against U.S. Activists and What We Can Do About It, Boston, MA: South End Press, 1989, 9, 19, 78.
[4] John L. Potash, Drugs as Weapons Against Us: The CIA’s Murderous Targeting of SDS, Panthers, Hendrix, Lennon, Cobain, Tupac, and Other Activists, Walterville OR: Trine Day, 2015, 358.
[5] Randall Sullivan, Labyrinth: A Detective Investigates the Murders of Tupac Shakur and Notorious B.I.G., the Implications of Death Row Records’ Suge Knight, and the Origins of the Los Angeles Police Scandal, “ New York: Grove Press, 2002, 50.
[6] Potash, 358-360.
[7] Kill the Messenger, Box Office Mojo, n.d.;  All Eyez on Me, Box Office Mojo, n.d.
[8] Deborah Hastings, “Suge Knight Has a Very Long List of Bitter Feuds,” New York Daily News, January 30, 2015.
[9] See, for example, Tricia Jenkins, The CIA in Hollywood: How the Agency Shapes Film and Television, Austin: University of Texas Press, 2013, and James F. Tracy “The CIA and the Media: 50 Historical Facts the World Needs to Know,” Centre for Research on Globalization, December 1, 2016. The Shakur estate is now supporting a documentary to be produced by Steve McQueen. Unfortunately, documentary films typically command a much smaller audience—and particularly a much older one—than does a slickly produced dramatization, even if the former may seek to truly inform the popular memory by closer adherence to the facts.

An Historical Perspective on the Unrest in Ethiopia.

From the book Rastafari and its Shamanist Origins.

The Dirge was a committee of low ranked, officers and enlisted men that was established, to investigate the military’s demands, for higher wages etc. The troops of the Dirge confronted H.I.M. in his office in the Jubilee Palace (the same office shown previously in this book). What follows is quoted from Harold G. Marcus’ A History of Ethiopia : ‘The next day, with Addis Ababa cut off from the world and under curfew, a small group of officers went to the palace and, at 6:00 A.M ., summoned Haile Sellassie. He appeared in full uniform and, with great dignity, stood proud and erect while a nervous officer read out a proclamation of deposition. The old man declared his acceptance, if it were for the good of the people, and he was escorted outside, where an awaiting vehicle and small escort took him to Fourth Division Headquarters. Within the hour, Radio Addis Abeba reported that Ethiopia had been freed from Haile Sellassie’s oppression by a Provisional Military, Administration Council (PMAC)—the descendants of the Coordinating Committee, that had abolished parliament and suspended the constitution’.  Kapuscinski gave a vivid account as told to him by Sellassie’s manservant worthy of re-enactment here: ‘At the end of August, the military proclaimed the nationalization of all the Emperor’s Palaces. There were fifteen of them. His private enterprises met the same fate, among them the Saint George Brewery, the Addis Ababa metropolitan bus company, the mineral-water factory in Ambo. The exact sum of the Emperor’s accounts will probably never be known. The propaganda bulletins spoke of four billion dollars. At daybreak, the soldiers came for H.I.M: “His Imperial Majesty will please follow us. Where to? H.S. asked, to a safe place, explained the major. Everybody left the Palace, in the driveway stood a green Volkswagen. You cannot be serious the Emperor bridled I am supposed to go like this? However, he presently fell silent and sat down in the back seat of the car. The Volkswagen set off followed by a jeep full of armed soldiers. I want to reconstruct the socio-political and highlight some geo-political events that led to the fall, arrest, and subsequent death of Haile Sellassie I. Here I will begin from the interim of the Italian slaughter on the Ethiopians in Addis Ababa and its outlying villages (The Graziani Massacre), By 1937 it was increasingly clear that the terrorist tactics and policies of the Italian governments vis a vis Ethiopians, only worked to harden the resolve of Ethiopians against Italian occupation, delayed development and settlement projects, and raised the costs of Italian security within Ethiopia. Resultantly Italy recalled Graziani, replacing him with the Duke of Aosta, a civilian in 1942. In southern and eastern Ethiopia, Aosta implemented the well-worn strategy of divide and conquer,  favored by European colonial-imperialist powers, dividing the Christian insurgents battling Italian occupation, from the Muslim population in the area.

The enmity between the varying ethnic groups in Ethiopia was lit aflame when the Italians, reorganized their stolen territories (colonies) in east Africa, Tigray in Eritrea, Italy then placed Ogaden in Somalia, then went on to divide the rest of the country into Galla and Sidama, Hater, Shoa, and Amara. Thereby attempting to eliminate the historical and cultural links of the people. In September 1939, world war II was underway, this was a boon for the Ethiopians, changing the geopolitical reality in favour of the Ethiopians. The Ethiopian insurgents and patriots increased their attacks on Italians and their interests in Ethiopia. One famous Ethiopian freedom fighter and a masterful tactician was, Dejazmatch Abebe Aregai, who was once the police chief of Addis Ababa. On June 10, 1940, Italy declared war on the allied powers, Haile Sellassie’s continuous appeals for assistance were finally heeded, by Britain. On 12 July 1940, London acquiesced and officially declared, Ethiopia (Haile Sellassie), as an ally. Two weeks later Haile Sellassie, was in the Sudanese capital Khartoum, the Sudanese army comprising roughly 2500 men, was no match for the 250,000 Italian troops and 200 warplanes. The British began training an Ethiopian force, to invade Gojam from Sudan ultimately joining up with the Ethiopian freedom fighters inside the country. The commander of the Ethiopian fighters was, Major Charles Wingate who trained the Ethiopian forces, thereby aiding them in becoming a highly disciplined well-trained unit.

The Ethiopian fighting force consisted of Ethiopian exiles, some European mercenaries, and Sudanese soldiers, the unit was called Gideon Force.  Haile Sellassie along with his fighters and Wingate entered Gojam on 20 January 1941. Upon seeing the fighters of Gideon force, the Italians who vastly outnumbered them fled for their lives, seeking shelter in their fortresses. The victorious Ethiopian soldiers from Gideon force rendezvoused, with the remnants of the Ethiopian freedom fighters, already there, atse (Emperor) Haile Sellassie II was thunderously welcomed by the freedom fighters in Gojam. On 5 May 1941, Haile Sellassie returned triumphantly to Addis Ababa, five years after the arrival of Badoglio, restoring Ethiopia’s freedom. H.I.M immediately moved to mitigate and eventually remove British influence by, acquiring non-British advisers, ending London’s control over Ethiopia’s finances and customs, and bringing to a close the British military monopoly in Dire Dawa, Ogaden, and along the national railway line. The prescient Sellassie, being a voracious student of history, foresaw that America then ascendant would become a global superpower, therefore he strategically aligned himself with the Americans.

The American consul in Eritrea, where the Americans had seized various Italian bases as, assembly points and distribution centers for lend-lease in the Middle East, aided Sellassie in his struggle to remove British political and economic hegemony from his nation. At Washington’s behest, Ethiopia became a member state of the fledgling United Nations, re-opening its embassy in Addis Ababa in 1943, gave arms and ammunition to Ethiopia, and sent a technical and advisory team, to report back to Washington on Ethiopia’s needs. Haile Sellassie I, recreated the pre-war economy and political structure, staffing the top positions with bureaucrats.  In 1944, the corporation turned a profit of 1.2 million and 1.8 million pounds respectively, double the standard margin for the majority of businesses in Ethiopia at the time. Haile Sellassie’s huge popularity amongst black western populations was also reflected in the enthusiastic support he received amongst African Americans, this support translated to the large number of African Americans enlisting in the US Army, to fight alongside the allies, this also meant they would get an opportunity to fight against Mussolini’s forces who were seen as devils incarnate.  The US State Department chaired a meeting on 13 February 1945, between Haile Sellassie I and Franklin Delano Roosevelt in Egypt. The program that Haile Selassie I presented to Roosevelt contained Ethiopia’s foreign policy goals at the time. And are as follows Ethiopian ownership over the railway to Djibouti, free and unimpeded access to the sea, recovery of Eritrea, reparations from Italy, assistance in developing a modern army, US investments in development.

At the same time London wanted to retain Ogaden as part of Greater Somalia, the Ethiopians recognized that such a move was detrimental to their interest’s and vociferously made their objections known to the British. Meanwhile the nationalist Somalia Youth League (SYL), was agitating for uniting all Somalians in Kenya, Ethiopia, and Djibouti into one ethnic state. By 1947, most Somalian policemen, soldiers, and officials were members of the (SYL), the Ogaden was being run by the afore mentioned at the behest of the British. Ethiopia determined to regain Ogaden, used the exploratory drilling of the American Sinclair Oil Company as a pretext to regain control of Ogaden. Ethiopia granted the American personnel of the company Sinclair Oil, one-year visas to work in Ogaden. Resultantly the Jijiga (SYL), condemned the move denouncing Ethiopia as illegitimate, claiming Ethiopia had no right to rule in Ogaden. When an international commission arrived in Mogadishu (1948), ostensibly to seek advice on Somalia’s post war disposition, (SYL) activist’s claimed Sinclair, was in Somalia illegally, (SYL) members then assaulted a Sinclair drilling team. The British commanding officer responsible for the gendarmerie was powerless, to intervene since the gendarmerie consisted of SYL members.  On 17 March 1948, the Ethiopians announced that British troops would shortly be withdrawn from Jijiga. The Ethiopian government thereafter established a new administration for, Ogaden which went into effect at the end of September. Haile Sellassie then turned his attention to, restoring Eritrea as part of Ethiopia. Eritrea then was governed by a British military administration, Haile Sellassie I argued that Eritrea prior to being colonized was a part of Ethiopia.

The seminal event that led to the fall of the regime of Haile Sellassie, was the famine that killed tens of thousands, in north-eastern Ethiopia mainly in the Wollo province and Tigray. A 1973 production by ITV entitled; ‘The Unknown Famine’ later reworked and retitled The Hidden Hunger by a group of army officers, who were plotting to seize power. The film juxtaposed footage of Haile Sellassie eating at a banquet in one of his palaces, with those of starving Ethiopians, the film portrayed a disproportionate image of massive death and untold misery. Although there were many deaths from starvation, the propagandist’s inflated the numbers. The famine, high oil prices, military mutinies all were contributing factors in the destabilization of the regime of Haile Sellassie. Edmund J. Keller in his book ‘Ethiopia: Revolution, Class and the National Question’, published by African Affairs (1981): wrote the following; ‘Peasants and pastoralists living on the margins of subsistence have had to cope with such phenomena from time immemorial. As a result of the process of modernization and the centralization efforts of the state, however, the lives of poor rural inhabitants had been unalterably changed. More and more of their surplus production has either been demanded by landlords and the state or been translated into cars in order [sic] to meet tax obligations. Conservatives and Liberal Reforms, 1960–1974 113 their freedom of movement and their access to land was also now inhibited by state regulation or by a complex and aggressive burgeoning market economy. Traditional survival mechanisms were either gravely weakened or completely inoperable. Rural people unwittingly had become extremely dependent on the state. For its part, the state was more concerned with economic growth and political survival than it was with meeting its inherited social responsibilities’.

The preceding ably gives the reader an understanding of some of the actual causes, why the peasants who were in the majority in Ethiopia and lived mainly in rural areas, were mobilized by those opposed to Haile Sellassie, to rise up against the government. The regions of Wolle and Tigray which supplied 40 percent of Ethiopia’s total food production at the time, were estimated to have lost about 20 percent of their human populations and 90 percent of their animals. Students and various citizen groups began food distribution campaigns. In 1973, students at the Haile Sellassie I University began a series of student protests on campus, that led to the arrests and subsequent deaths of some students. The protests were sparked by the famine in northern Ethiopia and in the low-lying areas (lowlands), of Harerge, Bale, Sidamo, and Gamo Gofa. In 1973, the peasants unable to sustain themselves, sold off their grain to purchase food, with some eating seed grain. Starving, many of them made their way to the towns, hoping to receive government aid. The provincial administrators underreported the true proportions of the crisis, in Addis Ababa officials at the outset denied the existence of the famine, not even bothering to report the existence of the crisis to Haile Selassie I. Intellectuals and students criticized the regime. The government promptly reacted, by banning all news of the famine, the official government stance was denial, till May 1973. The government was forced to admit the existence of the famine, when an ad hoc committee of professors from the Haile Sellassie I University professors traveled to Welo in 1973, returning with photos backed by a devastating report describing the horrendous reality of the residents, who were dying of starvation.  

In response to the criticism, the government established an emergency committee, which tried maintaining the crisis by internal resource mobilization. The Ethiopian government relief efforts were thwarted by a multiplicity of causes some of which were, nepotism, corruption, profiteering, the refusal of local and provincial governments to waive taxes and the inability to divert grain exports to relief agencies. International reporting painting an accurate picture of the debilitating famine in Ethiopia, the agonizing images of starving, dying babies with distended stomachs, flies on their bodies with their parents lying next to them, shocked the world. Those horrific images spurred a relief effort led by wealthy western nations’ governments, the effort eventually included relief organizations, NGOs, churches, students, universities, and academics mainly in the western hemisphere. In 1974 two related economic crises wreaked havoc on the global economy, particularly in developing countries, Ethiopia was amongst the worst hit, the primary crisis stemmed from the high cost of petroleum products caused by the closure of the Suez Canal, secondly, the high cost of finished goods and food, which rose by 20 and 80 percent respectively. Due to the massive unrest caused by students stoning vehicles in the streets and other riotous behavior, the military was authorized to quell the rebellion.

On February 23, Haile Sellassie toured the marketplace in Addis Ababa, speaking with people urging them to remain calm, meeting with the common people and vendors, in this manner Sellassie was able to diffuse the growing tension. He appeared on Ethiopian television that evening again urging calm, he announced that the military would, deal severely with cases of civil disturbance. On Monday 25 1974, Addis Ababa, experienced a scene of calm, which only presaged the coming storm of military unrest, that led to the overthrew of the Haile Sellassie I monarchial government. The Ethiopian Herald carried this brief message on August 28, 1975: ‘Yesterday Haile Sellassie I, the former Emperor of Ethiopia, died. The cause of death was circulatory failure’. The continued existence of Ethiopia as a unified nation-state is threatened, by the intra-ethnic and ethnic, strife that has characterized Ethiopia for thousands of years. Where will the Rastafari of the west, fit into the Ethiopia of the future? Even in Haile Sellassie’s Ethiopia ethnic strife was commonplace, as I have shown in this work, the pro-Amhara Sellassie regime killed other ethnic groups, like Ethiopian regimes past and present. Can Ethiopia transcend its, self-destructive ethnic divide? The future prognosis on Ethiopian ethnic unity is dismal indeed. Ethiopia’s political history is replete with examples, of ethnically motivated dissent.  At the center of the dissent in Ethiopia, the Oromo are often, the most severely affected group. The recent murder of Hachalu Hundesa 34, an Oromo musician known for his anti-government pro-Oromo music, and his support for the Oromia liberation movement. Hachalu was shot on Monday 29, June 2020, in an Addis Ababa suburb, he succumbed in a hospital, later of gunshot wounds. Later that same day, in Adama a town situated in the Oromia region, several people were killed during protests. The Ethiopian government has repeatedly denied, allegations by, local human rights groups and international organizations of torture, mass incarcerations, and extra-judicial killings.

In 1991, the Marxist government of Mengistu Haile Mariam was defeated by the Tigrean Peoples Liberation Front (TPLF), the succeeding political framework was and still is that of a, a federation of nine ethnically diverse states. Meles Zenawi the leader of the TPLF, became the President of Ethiopia, the now-deceased Zenawi (2012), was succeeded by Haile Mariam Desalegn, after 21 years as leader. Opposition figures accused Zenawi of being an authoritarian leader, Zenawi’s TPLF, became Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF). Ethiopia’s governance system is fraught with many challenges, foremost of them being its pseudo-democratic system, which often sees one party and its allies winning all the 547 parliamentary seats, not because of any overwhelming support, since the varying ethnic groups in Ethiopia would never all support one party. The mere fact that anyone party would win all 547 seats in ethnically diverse Ethiopia, points to the endemic corruption at the state level in Ethiopia. The EPRDF also controls the state security apparatus, the police, military, and all intelligence-gathering units, all are staffed and dominated by Tigrayans. The government’s bogus anti-terrorism laws are another tool used as a pretext to arrest anyone opposed to the regime, such as bloggers, journalists, opposition figures, human rights groups, and environmental activists.

 A report published in 2009, by AHR, Advocates for Human Rights, documented systemic abuse, by three successive Ethiopian governments against the Oromo, those governments are the following, the Haile Sellassie regime, the Marxist government led by Haile Mengistu, and the present EPRDF government first led by the now-deceased Meles Zenawi (Tigrayan), then led by his chosen successor Haile Desalegn, and now led by Abiy Ahmed. The report by the AHR comprising 166 pages, documented that between 2011 and 2014 at least 5000 ‘based on their actual or suspected peaceful opposition to the government’. Dissenters both actual and suspected had been ‘detained without charge or trial and killed by security services during protests, arrests and in detention’. In the Ogaden the situation is even more deplorable, comprising mainly ethnic Somalis the Ogaden, is an underdeveloped expanse of land containing rich oil and gas deposits, those living there have consistently accused the Ethiopian government of systemic abuses such as forced displacements from ancestral lands, forced removal of large groups to camps, starvations and massacres of civilians, the persons in the camps dependent on the Ethiopian government for food and water, are routinely starved with some dying from food and water deprivation. Rape and intimidation are routinely used by security forces as means of keeping, civilians in line, whose land was taken away by the Ethiopian government and given to Chinese consortiums who own gas and oil projects in the region. The Anuak in the Gambella (a resource-rich region in the west of Ethiopia bordering Sudan), also accused the Ethiopian government of crimes against them such as forced removal from their lands and massacres by the highlanders. The people assert that they do not benefit from, the oil and agricultural projects the government has leased to foreign interests. The Anuak a dark-hued African people, who have been treated as inferiors by the dominant Tigrayan and Amhara groups, since ancient times are discriminated against based on their ethnicity. The convulsive ethnic strife’s, which cause enormous societal rifts and eruptions, threatens the very existence of Ethiopia as a heterogeneous nation-state, as the Ethiopian historical and contemporaneous accounts have shown, throughout this work,   if state actors in Ethiopia, do not cease from ruling from an approach of repression, nepotism, genocidal policies, and ethnic favoritism, it is only a matter of time before what occurred in Rwanda repeats itself in Ethiopia.  The total dehumanization and wanton killing of the African that was justifiable by law in the above countries mentioned was unparalleled in their scope and their ability to allow mass mayhem to be perpetrated on the Africans who were in many cases utterly defenceless in the face of their own extinction. The task then of any honest scholar claiming to be a scholar of conscience or merit must of necessity be to construct a historical narrative that leads to a reconciliatory spirit between the past and present generations of Africans in continental Africa and their descendants.

The Armenian Massacre 2. The Continuation.

The outbreak of fighting in Nagorno Karabakh between the Armenians and Azerbaijani’s, are embers of an age-old conflict between the Armenians who are traditionally ‘Christian’, and the Azerbaijani’s who are traditionally adhere to the Islamic creed i.e. Muslims. The massacre and deportation of Turkey’s Armenian population took place against a background of fighting between Turkish and Russian forces, on the Caucasus front. It was described by some scholars, as the first genocide of the 20th century.

This post will focus on the events and socio-political, socio-cultural religious and ethnic differences that shaped, the Armenian and Azerbaijani conflict, making both ethnic groups the arch enemies that they are today.

Russia and Ottoman Turkey were multinational empires. Where their borders met in the Caucasus Armenians lived on both sides.

Armenian Nationalism: The Christian Armenians and their Turkish Muslim rulers in Turkey, had a history of conflict stretching back centuries. In the 1890’s Armenian nationalist agitation, served as a pretext for the Turks to slaughter thousands of Armenians. In August 1914, the Turkish government asked Armenian envoys gathered at Erzurum in eastern Turkey, to incite rebellion against Russian hegemony in the Caucasus. The Armenian refused, when Turkey entered World War I, the Caucasus and western Anatolia were turned into war zones. During Turkey’s ill-fated offensive in the winter of 1915, Armenians fought as conscripts in the Turkish and the Russian army. The Russian army also contained Armenians fighting, for liberation from Turkish rule.  Russia encouraged an Armenian revolt against Turkey, likewise the Turks incentivized and fomented an uprising by Turkic peoples and Muslim Kurds living in Russia. The Turkish army was roundly defeated at the Caucasus front at Sarikamish between December 1914 and January 1915.

Ethnic Tensions: The situation in eastern Anatolia was unstable, ethnic tensions were acute. The majority of the population consisted of Muslims, who were displaced from the Russian ruled Caucasus in the 19th century and bitterly resented, the Christian pro-Russian Armenians.

  1. This post will be continued, the continuation will highlight the Armenian Genocide.
  2. It will highlight the history of Azerbaijan and Armenia.
  3. It will highlight the 1990’s situation in Nagorno Karabakh and will touch on the current situation in Nagorno Karabakh.      

This is the continuation of the post: The Armenian Massacre.

Mass Deportations: On 24 April as the allies were beginning their landings at Gallipoli, the Interior Minister of Turkey Talaat Pasha, ordered the arrest of about 250 members of the Armenian urban elite, living in Constantinople. Turkey viewed the Armenians as an enemy within. More mass arrest’s followed with hundreds more prominent Armenians being detained. The Techir, deportation law authorized Turkish authorities, to engage in the arrest and mass deportation, of Armenians from Anatolia. During the mass deportations more than 600,000 Armenians died, the deportations were executed in a brutal and callused manner, resulting in a massive Armenian death toll. It should be noted that the Turks were and still are Muslims, and Armenians then and now are Christian. The typical clearance of an Armenian village by the Turkish military, began with the brutal slaughter of the male population, the deportees were force marched on the roads to Iraq and Syria. The deportees on the roads usually consisted of mainly of women young and old, as well as children. The deportees were not given an opportunity, to prepare most went on the forced marches, with the clothes on their backs and no food and water. Underway the defenceless Armenians were attacked by their primary nemesis the Kurds. Many Armenians from dehydration. For those who managed to reach the dismal camps in Syria and Iraq, their fate was even worse, they often died a slow and painful death, from starvation, disease, and the extremely harsh circumstances they were living in.

By 1916, the Russians under the command of General Nikolai Yudenich went on the offensive, in Anatolia (Turkey), capturing the fortress town of Erzurum and the port of Trabzon in February of 1916, by then the area’s Armenian population had been annihilated.

The war today being fought by Armenia and Azerbaijan is as a direct result of the many unrequited atrocities, perpetrated by both groups throughout, the years one against the other.

Ethiopia Birthplace of The Human Race.

Excerpted from Rastafari and its Shamanist Origins by Wade A. Bailey.

Ethiopia’s bedrock belongs to the earth’s first continent, a continent called Gondwanaland by geologists, of which Africa forms the last intact remnant. The structures of this 600-million-year-old land made up of hard, massive folded pre-Cambrian crystalline rock, have been covered over throughout most of Ethiopia by recent formations. Ethiopia is called the cradle of mankind, by some geologist’s and anthropologists. The Bible records in Genesis 2:8-14 that: ‘And the Lord God planted a garden eastward in Eden; and there he put the man whom he had formed 10 And a river went out of Eden to water the garden, and from thence it was parted into four heads. 11 The name of the first is Pison, that is it which compasseth the whole land of Havilah where there is gold. 12 And the gold of that land is good there is Bedellium and the Onyx stone. 13 And the name of the second is Gihon (Blue Nile) the same is it that compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. 14 And the name of the third river is Hiddekel that is it which goeth toward the east of Assyria and the fourth river is Euphrates. As per the biblical description Eden was a huge land mass and the river that flowed out of it, straddled more than one country, Ethiopia is one that was specifically named as being completely surrounded by one of the rivers namely Gihon (Blue Nile), judging from the biblical description the Garden of Eden is placed on the African continent, interestingly said placement is in agreement with ,scientific, archaeological, historical references and evidence.   

Here we have a visual map aide showing the proximity of Arab countries to Africa, it is from those countries, that Cannabis was introduced into the continent. Ethiopia is located in the northeast region of Africa, the ‘Horn’, of Africa so called because of the horn shaped tip of the continent, that demarcates the Red Sea from the Indian Ocean. Ethiopia is bordered by Sudan on its western border Somalia to the southeast, Kenya to the south, Djibouti to the east, and Eritrea

to the north and northeast. Ethiopia consists of four major river systems the first system consists of the Takaze also known as the Atbara, the Abbay or the Blue Nile, lastly the Baro originating in Sudan, then flowing westward into the Nile.   

According to the officially available figures Ethiopia’s population is about 76 million people, it is the third most populous nation in Africa. The varying ethnicities that comprise Ethiopia’s populace is diverse and are grouped as follows, the Amhara and Tigrinya 32 percent, the Oromo 40 percent, Sidamo 9 percent, Somali’s 6 percent, Shankella 6 percent, Gurage 2 percent, Afar 4 percent. There are hundreds of languages spoken in Ethiopia that fall into four major categories. Three of which have a common ancestry that is called proto-Afroasiatic by linguists (Afro-Asiatic is Hamitic-Semetic). The three are known as Cushitic, Omotic and Semitic. Harold G. Marcus wrote in his seminal work; A History of Ethiopia published by University of California, that: ‘Evidence is strong that the Afro-Asiatic (Hamitic-Semitic) group of languages developed and fissured in the Sudan-Ethiopian borderlands. There Proto-Cushitic. and Proto-Semitic began their evolution. In Ethiopia, the Semitic branch grew into a northern group, today echoed in Tigrinya, and a southern group, best heard in Amharic. It simultaneously spread to the Middle East, whence, millennia later, it returned in a written form to enrich its cousins several times removed’. Cushitic includes the Agaw, the Somali, the Afar, the Saho, the Hadiya, the Kambata, the Oromo and the Gedeo. Omotic, the term Omotic is derived from the fact that the people thus designated traditionally lived on both sides of the Omo river. The following nationalities comprise the Omotic, the Dorze, Janjaro, Maji, Kafa, Waylata and the Dizi. The last category is the Semetic Geez is the oldest Semitic language spoken in Ethiopia, it is largely confined to the religious sphere i.e. sacral literature and theology. Other Semetic languages are, Amharic, Tegra, Harari and Gurage. There is the Nilo-Saharan language groups, which are not connected to the Cushitic, Omotic and Semetic language groups previously cited, they are as follows the Anuak, the Nuer, the Kunama southwestern Eritrea, the Gumuz in western Gojam and the Manjanjir. Linguistic and archeological evidence point to a prehistoric genesis for Ethiopian culture. Early evidence of human existence has been found in the varied array of stone tools, found in many parts of Ethiopia. Village farming was developed in Ethiopia during the Neolithic period. There is empirical evidence that Stone Age culture endured in Ethiopia, during different epochs. The Watta of Ethiopia were related to the hunting groups of northeastern and eastern Africa. The Agau are an early population who still exist today in Ethiopia. The Agau discovered new strains of plants, the domestication of the donkey and mule breeding regionally. The plateau peoples are grouped into three groups, linguistically and anthropologically, they are referred to as the Central Agau, and western and eastern Cushite’s. During the second Millennium the population increased dramatically, resultantly the Cushitic population who lived in the southern fringes expanded into Uganda, Kenya, and Tanganyika. The migrations of the Bantu’s into Ethiopia changed the population dynamics in Ethiopia and all other southern African societies. Along with the afore mentioned and the erection of the phallic stones in southern Ethiopia, the basis for the development of states in Ethiopia were established. The development of city states in Ethiopia were spurned by various socio-religious dynamics and the intra-personal relationships of the various people groups vis a vis their counterparts. One of the ethnicities in Ethiopia credited with helping advance the proto-city state, to the contemporary city state are the Oromo. The Oromo, lived in the Ethiopian highlands in areas like Bali, the borders of what is now the Republic of Somalia. They claim to have emerged from the Borana region of southwestern Ethiopia. By the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, powerful Abyssinian kings by force of arms, made the Oromo move west and southwest into the barely habitable, saltpans, lava fields and toward the boulder and sand deserts near Lake Rudolph. Some Oromo groups over time developed powerful monarchial states. The Oromo are notable for their martial feats specifically as cavalry (mounted soldiers), ancient Ethiopian literature is replete with mention of or praises to the Oromo for their exploits on the battlefield. In 1776 civil war ushered in the era of the ‘age of princes’, the war and political intrigues persisted till 1855. The civil war ultimately resulted in the proto provincialism that is prevalent even today, resultantly the various provinces competed for territory and resources against the other provinces in a struggle for ultimate hegemony. The period saw the ascendency of various provincial dynasties, each province was demarcated along ethnic and national lines, the loyalty of the people was not to Ethiopia, but to their provinces and their kings who ruled over them. The Gondar monarchy’s decline led to an increase in the influence of the Galla. Gondar was once Ethiopia’s largest city, and a hub of religion and art. Gondar was Ethiopia’s defacto capital from 1635-1867. By this time, the Solomonic dynasty and ethos extant for hundreds of years was well established. Since the Galla at the time were a well-established and powerful ethnic group, the royal family forged strong ties with the Galla through marriage. The Ethiopian imperial monarchy was diluted because of the majority of Galla being Muslims, the throne then was not a legitimate manifestation of Christian power but was an instrument of power wielded by Muslims. One dynasty that laid claim to the Solomonic heritage, as well as being a mainly Christian polity in its hierarchical structure, was Shoa.  Shoa an alternate spelling is Shewa, free of the rampant civil strife sweeping the rest of Ethiopia, was able to create a largely coherent bureaucracy that was characterized by a heterogenous coexistence, among the varying ethnic and religious groups. The unification of Shoa was solidified under a Christian dynastic monarchy, which waged wars of hegemony till the end of the 18th century. In the reign of Sahle Sellassie (1813-1847) an Amhara Negus, he had many childrenone of them being Haile Melekot, the father of Menellek II. When his father was murdered Sahle Sellassie, seized the throne although he had older male siblings. Sahle moved swiftly to consolidate power with the help of his mother’s kinsmen, he marched from the monastery at Sehla Dingay, where he was enrolled as a student, to his father’s capital at Qundi and claimed the succession, he was proclaimed Ras of Showa. Some of his male siblings reached Qundi, at a later date and were promptly imprisoned. Shortly after his proclamation a Ras, he proclaimed himself Negus of Shewa. In 1829, Shewa was hit with a debilitating famine, shortly thereafter a cholera epidemic struck, killing two thirds of the stricken. Again, misfortune struck, when one of the Negus’ generals rebelled, Medoko, several of the elite Matchlockmen (infantry with guns) deserted with him and they joined with the Oromo. Together they burned Angolalla, and waged battles against Shewa. When Sahle Sellassie was able to put down the rebellion (1835), another catastrophe struck, Shewa was afflicted by a drought which decimated crops and livestock, bringing famine to the province. Sahle Sellassie responded to the famine by opening up the royal storehouses to the people, this act greatly enhanced his status with many viewing him as a wise, loving and generous king.  Sahle Sellassie was a great reformer, some of his notable reforms are as follows, he limited executions to murder, treason and sacrilege, executions required the consent of the Negus. He further ceased the practices (torture) of his predecessors, such as brandings with hot irons, executions, and severance of limbs of accused persons and criminals. Many death sentences were reduced to life imprisonment or property forfeiture. Blood money was paid to a murder victim’s relatives, instead of handing them over to the relatives of the victims’ family (an ancient tradition in Ethiopia still practiced at the time). He instituted tax reforms and greatly increased the store of firearms available to the state at the time. He signed friendship treaties with both France and England and even encouraged foreigners to settle in Shoa.In the following, I will highlight Ethiopian Orthodoxy, Ethiopian history, iconography, music, art, and culture. Ethiopian artists have produced an enormous amount of work particularly, the artwork of the Tewahedo Church, murals, manuscripts, ceremonial furniture, including their unique crosses and panel paintings on wood. Ethiopian iconography depicts a wide variety of sacred imagery used for a variety of reasons both devotional and apotropaic objects (amulets), i.e. having the power to ward off evil or bad luck. The national dress of Ethiopia is the Shamma, a rectangular shawl of three feet in width, hand woven from cotton. Men wear jodhpurs, which fit tightly from knee to ankles. Women wear blouses with full skirts of ankle length. Men and women wrap barnos, around their shoulders (especially in the highlands), when the weather cools or is breezy. The national dish of Ethiopia is called injera, a locally made sour, fermented flat bread with a spongelike texture, and wat ot zegeni, which is a type of curried stew made of beef, mutton or chicken, hardboiled eggs are added, and are seasoned in the Ethiopian manner with, red pepper (berbere) and other spices. It is at times served with tedj, a honey mead fermented drink, or tall an Ethiopian beer. Names and naming ceremonies in Ethiopia, like most Middle Eastern and African countries are of paramount importance. Asfa Wossen Asserate, the great grandson of Haile Sellassie, wrote in his book; ‘King of Kings: The Triumph and Tragedy of Emperor Haile Sellassie’, the following: ‘Ethiopian naming conventions have no concept of the division into Christian name and surname that us usual in Europe. People have a single given name. This is often followed by the fathers’ name, thus Tafari Makonnen is Tafari the son of Makonne’. If a child dies, and another is born, the newborn child’s name oftentimes is Kassa, meaning restitution. Common male names are Hagos (joy), Desta (pleasure), Tesfaye (my hope). Some common names for females in Ethiopia are Ababa (flower), Zewditu (crown), Terunesh (you are pure) and a host of others, but these are commonly recognizable even in this work since the famous etege Zewditu Menellek’s daughter’s name is one of the most common female names, in Ethiopia. Common Christian or baptismal male names are, names compounded with for instance Gebre (servant of) an example is Gebre Yesus (servant of Jesus), Walda (son of), Haile (power of), and Habte (gift of). Well known female baptismal names are, often compounded with the following Amete (maid of), like Amete Maryam maid of Mary, or Walatta (daughter of) for example Walatta Sion (daughter of Zion).

The Armenian Massacre.

The outbreak of fighting in Nagorno Karabakh between the Armenians and Azerbaijani’s, are embers of an age-old conflict between the Armenians who are traditionally ‘Christian’, and the Azerbaijani’s who are traditionally adhere to the Islamic creed i.e. Muslims. The massacre and deportation of Turkey’s Armenian population took place against a background of fighting between Turkish and Russian forces, on the Caucasus front. It was described by some scholars, as the first genocide of the 20th century.

This post will focus on the events and socio-political, socio-cultural religious and ethnic differences that shaped, the Armenian and Azerbaijani conflict, making both ethnic groups the arch enemies that they are today.

Russia and Ottoman Turkey were multinational empires. Where their borders met in the Caucasus Armenians lived on both sides.

Armenian Nationalism: The Christian Armenians and their Turkish Muslim rulers in Turkey, had a history of conflict stretching back centuries. In the 1890’s Armenian nationalist agitation, served as a pretext for the Turks to slaughter thousands of Armenians. In August 1914, the Turkish government asked Armenian envoys gathered at Erzurum in eastern Turkey, to incite rebellion against Russian hegemony in the Caucasus. The Armenian refused, when Turkey entered World War I, the Caucasus and western Anatolia were turned into war zones. During Turkey’s ill-fated offensive in the winter of 1915, Armenians fought as conscripts in the Turkish and the Russian army. The Russian army also contained Armenians fighting, for liberation from Turkish rule.  Russia encouraged an Armenian revolt against Turkey, likewise the Turks incentivized and fomented an uprising by Turkic peoples and Muslim Kurds living in Russia. The Turkish army was roundly defeated at the Caucasus front at Sarikamish between December 1914 and January 1915.

Ethnic Tensions: The situation in eastern Anatolia was unstable, ethnic tensions were acute. The majority of the population consisted of Muslims, who were displaced from the Russian ruled Caucasus in the 19th century and bitterly resented, the Christian pro-Russian Armenians.

  1. This post will be continued, the continuation will highlight the Armenian Genocide.
  2. It will highlight the history of Azerbaijan and Armenia.
  3. It will highlight the 1990’s situation in Nagorno Karabakh and will touch on the current situation in Nagorno Karabakh.